This is a comprehensive list of the most popular Nootropics in use today. Here you’ll learn what the nootropic is, what it does and suggested dosages.
If you are new to the world of Nootropics, you may be wondering the best way to use a particular compound. You’ll find that here.
If you are an experienced neurohacker this is a great quick reference guide.
You’ll find the full scope of benefits of each Nootropic. Its specific mechanism of action. How safe it is. And suggestions on pairing it with other Nootropics for your stack.
A word of caution – always start off with the lowest effective dose of any supplement. Each of our bodies is different so you need to find out the effects of each nootropic in your body. And how it will benefit you.
The list of Nootropics is in alphabetical order. To quickly go to that listing just click on the name in the Table of Contents below.
- Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)
- Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)
- Artichoke Extract (Luteolin)
- Bacopa Monnieri
- Cat’s Claw
- Choline Bitartrate
- Choline Citrate
- Citicoline (see CDP-Choline)
- CoQ10 & Ubiquinol
- DHA (Omega 3)
- Forskolin (Coleus root)
- Ginkgo Biloba
- Gotu Kola
- Kava Kava
- Lion’s Mane
- L- Carnosine
- L-Dopa (Mucuna Pruriens)
- Lemon Balm
- N-Acetyl L-Cysteine
- N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine
- Oat Straw
- Rhodiola Rosea
- Phosphatidylcholine (PC)
- Phosphatidylserine (PS)
- St John’s Wort
- Uridine Monophosphate
- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
- Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
- Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
- Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
- Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
- Vitamin B9 (Folate)
- Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)
Acetyl L-Carnitine ((R)-3-Acetyloxy-4-trimethylammonio-butanoate) is an acetylated form of L-Carnitine. A derivative of the amino acid lysine which is naturally produced in your liver and kidneys. This synthesized form can easily cross the blood-brain barrier.
ALCAR is a nootropic because it targets your brain metabolism, boosts mitochondria energy, and acts as a neuroprotectant. Acetyl L-Carnitine protects neurotransmitters which makes it a powerful compliment to boost the effectiveness of other nootropics.
Acetyl-l-carnitine boosts memory, mental alertness, fluid thought, and is a strong antioxidant.
The usual suggested dosage for ALCAR is 500 – 1,500 mg per day.
Alpha GPC (alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is found naturally in your brain. It is a precursor to acetylcholine – an essential neurotransmitter involved in memory, cognition, sleep and muscular control.
As a nootropic, Alpha GPC easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It boosts acetylcholine levels in your brain contributing to improved memory, cognition, learning and focus. And protects against age-related memory loss.
You get Alpha GPC from raw beef liver, cod fish, spinach, milk, soy and eggs. As a supplement, Alpha GPC derived from soy or sunflower lecithin is a more efficient way of boosting acetylcholine in your brain.
Recommended daily dosage for Alpha GPC is 600 mg.
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA)
Alpha-Lipoic Acid used as a nootropic is a synthetic version of lipoic acid. A compound naturally occurring in your body. This antioxidant is necessary for cellular energy production. And helps eliminate the free radicals created when nutrients convert to cellular energy.
ALA boosts energy levels, protects brain cells from free radical damage, and improves memory.
Recommended dosage for Alpha-Lipoic Acid is 200 – 400 mg per day.
Aniracetam (1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone) is an N-side chain derivative of piracetam. It is thought to be 5 to 8-times more potent than piracetam. Aniracetam is fat-soluble and has a shorter half-life compared to other racetams.
A potent nootropic, Aniracetam reduces anxiety and depression with no sedative effects. It seems to do this by activating the D2 and D3 Dopamine receptors in the brain. Aniracetam helps improve memory, learning, cognition, along with heightened reflexes and perception.
Dosing aniracetam is 750 – 1,500 mg per day. Do half your daily dose twice per day.
Ashwagandha has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for several thousand years. In Sanskrit it literally means “the smell of a horse” which implies this herb provides the vigor and strength of a stallion.
As a nootropic, Ashwagandha helps relieve stress, fatigue, restore energy and boosts concentration. As an adaptogen, it helps your entire body by normalizing blood sugar, boosts insulin sensitivity, works as an antioxidant, promotes breast, lung and colon health, and protects against inflammation.
The typical recommended dose of Ashwagandha is 600 – 1,000 mg twice daily.
Artichoke Extract (Luteolin)
Artichoke Extract is a PDE4 inhibitor. PDE4 is an enzyme that breaks down cAMP molecules (messenger systems that relay signals in the brain). Stopping PDE4 then prevents the breakdown of cAMP.
Artichoke Extract is even more powerful when combined with Forskolin to significantly boost cAMP (brain signaling) levels.
Best nootropic artichoke extract dosage with 5% cynarin is 500 mg.
Many consider Bacopa Monnieri to be the best nootropic available today. The nootropic benefit of Bacopa Monnieri were first revealed in ancient Ayurvedic texts. In Ayurveda its used to help memorize long passages of text. And enhance cognition.
The ancient Hindis liked it so much they named it “Brahmi”, after the supreme god Brahma.
Bacopa Monnieri is an adaptogen. It helps prevent the chemical and physical effects of stress. Instead of just suppressing them like many modern antidepressants.
Bacopa Monnieri is used to reduce anxiety, depression, and stress. It’ll boost memory, concentration and reaction time. And is used for neuroprotection, and to balance neurotransmitters.
Dosage recommendations for Bacopa Monnieri with 45% bacosides is 450 mg.
Cat’s Claw is a South American vine used as a nootropic with potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that support DNA repair, immune function and normal cell division.
For cognitive health, Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) has been used to prevent inflammation, promote cerebral circulation, fight amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s and possibly even boost acetylcholine (ACh).
The recommended daily dose for Cat’s Claw extract (Uncaria tomentosa) supplementation is 250 to 350 mg daily.
Choline is an essential nutrient needed by your body. And cannot make it on its own. Choline is arguably the most basic of nootropics.
It is a water soluble nutrient required for the health of cell membranes. Choline is also the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Food sources of choline are egg yolks, liver, milk and other dairy products, certain grains like quinoa and amaranth, bacon, edamame and cruciferous vegetables.
Brain health is compromised by too little choline. And with our modern diet it is nearly impossible to get enough choline without supplementation.
Choline as a nootropic is used as an acetylcholine precursor. In other words, it’s the step before producing acetylcholine in your brain.
Common signs of choline deficiency can include; headaches, fatigue, memory problems, and muscle pain.
The way your body uses different sources of choline varies depending on the source, and mechanism of action. Common choline sources used as nootropics are explained next.
Choline Bitartrate is a “choline salt”, and one of the least costly sources of choline as a nootropic supplement. Its a weaker source of choline than Alpha GPC and CDP-Choline. Meaning you need to use more to achieve similar nootropic effects.
Dosing for choline bitartrate ranges from 500 mg – 5 grams daily.
Like other sources of choline, choline citrate acts as a precursor to acetylcholine in the brain. This is a slightly more concentrated form of choline. It’s a combination of choline and a derivative of citric acid.
Choline Citrate is effective as a nootropic when use in large enough doses. It assists in boosting memory and recall, cognitive abilities, helps concentration and even used to treat brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
Athletes like choline citrate for its ability to assist in cellular and muscle health and repair.
Choline citrate is available in powder, capsule or pill form. And you’ll find it as a main ingredient in many pre-formulated nootropic stacks. Since its water soluble you can take it with water, or mixed with your favorite juice.
Dosage can be from 500 mg. to 3 grams per day.
Citicoline (see CDP-Choline)
CDP-Choline (Cytidine Diphosphate Choline) is also known as Citicoline. CDP-choline is a highly bioavailable source of choline that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier.
CDP-Choline is metabolized in the body to form choline and cytidine.[i] In the body choline aids in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the body. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter associated with memory and learning.
The cytidine in CDP-Choline converts to uridine in the body. This nucleotide is important to neural membrane synthesis which helps cognition or thinking.
CDP-Choline is an effective nootropic on its own. And works synergistically to boost the effectiveness of other nootropics. Particularly those in the racetam family.
Dosing of CDP-Choline is 250 – 750 mg. per day.
DMAE is a natural chemical found in your body. It works on boosting cognition and mood. Centrophenoxine seems to be more effective than DMAE when used as a supplement.
Marketed in Europe as “Lucidril”, its prescribed to treat Alzheimer’s and ADHD.
Centrophenoxine is an excellent source of acetylcholine. You can boost the effectiveness of certain nootropics like Piracetam when combined with Centrophenoxine.
A dosage range of 500 – 1000 mg. is considered safe.
As a nootropic, coluracetam enhances concentration and cognition, boosts memory, mood and focus, and treats anxiety disorders. It also seems to have a stimulant effect which improves motivation. Users also report richer and fuller sound and colors.
General dosage is 20 – 80 mg. per day, but depends on your reason for using coluracetam. And your past experience in using racetams. You may want start with a lower dose, and increase over time based on your experience with this nootropic.
CoQ10 & Ubiquinol
Coenzyme Q10 is naturally obtained from food such as; beef, liver, sardines, mackerel, butter, and extra virgin olive oil. In an ideal world our bodies would convert enough CoQ10 to Ubiquinol from our food. But a more convenient way is giving our bodies CoQ10 directly by using Ubiquinol as a supplement. No conversion necessary.
The original supplement form of CoQ10 was Ubiquinone. It was updated with a newer synthesis of CoQ10 called Ubiquinol which boosts bioavailability from 40% to 90%.
CoQ10 is essential to fueling the mitochondria in our cells by producing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). The Ubiquinol version of CoQ10 is highly bioavailable and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. As a Nootropic, CoQ10 not only fuels ATP in brain cells, but protects against free radical damage as well.[ii]
CoQ10 improves athletic performance, works as an antioxidant, and battles fatigue and depression.
A daily dose of CoQ10 of 100 mg. from a highly available form like Ubiquinol is best.
Creatine is made in the liver, and acts as fuel cells for your cells. Including brain cells. It provides energy on demand. You could say creatine is the ultimate nootropic.
Creatine is a popular supplement for athletes because it boosts physical performance by going directly to the muscles needing fuel. Vegetarians and vegans typically have lower levels of creatine in the body than meat eaters.
Creatine is also favored by nootropic users because of the fuel demanded by brain cells when using racetams. After crossing the blood-brain barrier, creatine binds to phosphate. Creatine phosphate in turn fuels energy consumption by the brain.
So creatine is good for muscle fuel, and mental performance. It helps boost memory, reducing brain fatigue, improve mood, is anti-aging and a neuroprotectant.
Dosage recommendation vary widely based on personal preference and physical demand. It goes from 200 mg to 25 grams daily. As a nootropic the most common creatine dosage is 3 – 5 grams per day.
DHA (Omega 3)
Your brain is 60% fat. So it would be safe to say that to maintain and excel mentally, our brain needs a good supply of healthy fats.
The two most studied omega-3 fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA makes up a large portion of brain gray matter. Brain fat forms cell membranes. And plays a vital role in how our cells function. Neurons are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids. DHA is a main component of brain synapses. (A synapse is the part of a brain cell that causes a neuron to pass an electrical signal to another neuron).
Low levels of omega-3 fatty acids result in ADD, anxiety, depression, obesity, suicide, and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.
Diets rich in omega-3’s help balance emotions and boost mood because DHA is a main component of the brain’s synapses.
Eating fish helps cognitive performance because fish, krill, and other marine life are high in Omega-3’s. Other foods high in Omega-3 fatty acids include: anchovies, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, flaxseed, soybeans, walnuts, spinach, and tofu.
Ideal daily dosage for Omega-3’s should include a least 1,000 mg of DHA.
DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is a hormone produce by your adrenal glands, brain, and testes in men. DHEA levels decline with age right along with testosterone. The result is deceased motivation, cognition, depression, fatigue, and loss of libido.
DHEA as a nootropic has a noticeable effect on increasing motivation, and a general sense of well-being.
Remember that DHEA is a steroid hormone, and does increase estrogen. In men prolonged elevated estrogen levels has negative effects like abdominal fat, and male breasts.
Dosing DHEA is 25 mg. per day and you may want to cycle one month on and one month off. And get your estradiol & DHEA levels checked.
DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol) naturally occurs in the brain. DMAE is not a precursor to acetylcholine as reported on some other nootropic sites. DMAE prevents choline metabolism by cells and boosting choline levels in the brain as a result.
DMAE as a nootropic helps increase alertness, boosts mood and memory. Studies show that DMAE supplementation may help improve mood.[iii]
Use of DMAE as a nootropic has mixed reviews in the neurohacking community. Some report benefits to increased energy. And others say it causes hyperactivity, loss of focus and motivation, and depression. Most of the negative effects of DMAE come from higher and prolonged dosing.
Like all nootropics, and particularly with DMAE, experiment to find out if it’s right for you. Start out with a smaller 50 mg. dose, and go as high as 200 mg. per day looking for your sweet spot. And check out the “Dosage Notes” and “Side Effects” in the extended article for more on DMAE.
5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) is a serotonin precursor in the brain. It is a naturally occurring byproduct of the amino acid tryptophan. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps communication between neurons.
5-HTP as a nootropic easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. And once it converts to serotonin can help improve mood, control behavior and appetite, and help you sleep.
Research shows 5-HTP can help in impulse control, and balance out moods resulting in less anxiety.[iv] And even reduce panic attacks.
Dosing of 5-HTP is 50 mg 3-times per day for up to 2 weeks.
See the extended article for Nootropics Expert recommendations and warnings on supplementing with 5-HTP.
Forskolin (Coleus root)
Forskolin is a plant native to south Asia. And has a limited nootropic track record. It first became popular when included in the open source stack CILTEP.
Common dosage of Forskolin is 150 – 250 mg. per day.
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid and neurotransmitter produced by glutamate in your brain. GABA in the brain is considered an inhibitory neurotransmitter which means is prevents other neurotransmitters from being released. Resulting in an anti-anxiety and calming effect.
GABA as a supplement makes a poor nootropic because it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. Adding a phenyl group to GABA (called Phenibut (β-Phenyl-GABA)), this derivative is able to enter your brain to lower levels of anxiety and stress.
Typical recommended dosage of Phenibut is 250 mg per day.
Ginkgo Biloba comes from the leaves of the Ginkgo tree native to China. The leaves have been used for thousands of years to boost mental alertness, improve cerebral circulation, and the overall function of the brain.
As a nootropic, Ginkgo has been shown to be particularly effective in elderly memory loss, slow thinking and reasoning, and tinnitus. One study shows significant improvement in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer patients.[v]
Most noticeable in adults suffering cognitive decline, Ginkgo Biloba seems to improve short term memory and recall. It’s also effective in reducing stress and anxiety, and boosting mood.
Dosage of Ginkgo Biloba is typically 120 – 240 mg. per day with food. Caution should be taken because Ginkgo can increase internal bleeding in some users.
Ginseng can improve symptoms of anxiety, and boost attention, concentration, and memory. Nootropic users above 40 find the most benefit in Ginseng.
Panax ginseng is native to southeast Asia. Other species include American Ginseng and Siberian Ginseng. Each have unique characteristics. Panax Ginseng is preferred, and is used as a memory booster, improves mood, lower anxiety levels, and boosts stamina and endurance.
Look for ginseng extract of at least 3-5% ginsenosides. A good starting dose is 100 mg per day.
Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) is one of the most important herbs in ancient Ayurveda medicine. Ayurveda uses it to reduce anxiety, reduce fever and treat skin conditions. It improves circulation and promotes longevity.
As an extract dosage is 10 drops or 10-20 ml per day. As a dried herb make a tea of the dried leaf and use 3-times daily. As a powdered herb take 400-600 mg, three times per day.
Huperzine-A is a natural compound extracted from the Chinese club moss huperzia serrata. Huperzine-A is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which means it boosts levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in your brain.
Huperzine-A helps promote memory by increasing acetylcholine levels. Users report improved memory, retention, cognition, and lucid dreaming.
Dosage of Huperzine-A is 200 mcg per day.
Since iodine has largely been removed from table salt in some countries, many suggest an iodine deficiency epidemic. Particularly in countries like the United States.
Iodine is essential to a healthy thyroid. Remember, your thyroid is right next to your brain. Iodine deficiency during early childhood results in profound intellectual disability.
The thyroid hormones T4 and T3 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. These help regulate processes like growth and metabolism. Thyroid hormones target organs like the brain where they regulate gene expression. And help protect brain cells from toxins.
Ask anyone suffering from hypothyroidism about brain fog!
Dosage for a healthy adult is 25 – 50 mg per day. Supplemented with selenium. Brazil nuts are a great source of natural iodine. One Brazil nut can give you your daily dose.
Kava (piper methysticum) is native to the South Pacific. Pacific Islanders traditionally use the plant for its sedative effects.
Kava can help to reduce anxiety, improve mood, and promote an overall sense of well-being. And unlike benzodiazepines, kava does not impair cognitive function. In fact, studies show kava may boost cognitive function.[viii]
Of the 105 varieties of kava, Noble and Tudei Kava has been traditionally used in the South Pacific Islands. And has been safely consumed for hundreds of years.
Daily dosage of Kava Kava is 250 – 500 mg. Some experts suggest taking less as it will have less impact on your liver. Experiment to find out what works for you.
Lion’s Mane Mushroom is an ancient Chinese remedy for improving cognitive performance, and overall health.
Unlike other nootropics which often modulate neurotransmitters, Lion’s Mane goes to the root of the problem. It prevents and treats nerve damage by boosting Brain Nerve Growth Factor, or neurogenesis.
Lion’s Mane can help improve focus and attention, boost thinking, repair brain cells, help depression and anxiety, and manage other neurological problems like Alzheimer’s, dementia, Parkinson’s and muscular dystrophy.
Lion’s Mane Mushroom dosage depends largely on the strength of the extract. And amount of polysaccharide content. Try 500 mg to 3 gm per day depending on extract concentration.
L- Carnosine is an amino acid or dipeptide found in your kidneys, liver, muscles and brain. The two amino acids are beta-alanine and L-histidine.
L-Carnosine works in the body as an antioxidant scavenging for free radicals. The concentration in muscles correlates with life span so it’s considered a powerful anti-aging supplement.
L-Carnosine is involved in neurotransmission, binds to and helps remove AGEs (Advance Glycosylation End-products), helps in the treatment of Alzheimer’s, and assists in removing heavy metal toxins.
While you may not see profound and immediate nootropic benefits using L-Carnosine, hundreds of studies prove its benefits for long-term health and anti-aging.
Recommended dosage of L-Carnosine is 1,000 mg per day. Bodybuilders and athletes prefer supplementing with beta-alanine – up to 3.2 grams per day. (Do not confuse L-Carnosine with L-Carnitine).
L-Dopa (Mucuna Pruriens)
Dopamine deficiency is directly correlated with Parkinson’s Disease.
L-dopa easily crosses the blood-brain barrier when used as a nootropic supplement. L-dopa can increase libido, testosterone, enhances memory and learning retention. It is also reported to increase human growth hormone (HGH) levels.[ix]
You can easily get extracts of Mucuna pruriens of up to 98% pure L-Dopa taken from velvet bean or cowitch. Dosage depends on the strength of the extract and can range from 150 mg to 1 gm per day.
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) is used for its anti-anxiety effects. This plant from the mint family has a lemony scent, and is native to the Mediterranean region.
Rosmarinic acid, a compound found in lemon balm, inhibits the GABA transaminase enzyme. Which in turn helps maintain adequate levels of GABA in your brain. Resulting in a calming effect.
As a nootropic, lemon balm is most commonly used for stress relief, and reduction of panic attacks. Lemon balm also helps with focus, concentration, reduces irritability and depression, and improves memory and learning retention.
Dosage of lemon balm is 1 – 2 grams of dried lemon balm leaf as a tea, or 300 – 600 mg of lemon balm extract as a nootropic supplement.
L-glutamine in your brain works by boosting glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It also helps detox toxins and free radicals from your brain.
And by increasing GABA levels, L-glutamine can lead to reduced stress and better sleep.
Dosage of L-glutamine varies from 500 mg all the way to 10 or 20 grams. For nootropic use its typically on the lower end of the scale. Experiment with smaller amounts, and move up as needed to see what works best for you.
L-Theanine, which naturally occurs in green tea and oolong tea, is an amino acid. L-Theanine is used as a nootropic for anxiety, learning, mood, and focus.
Experienced nootropic users often “stack” L-Theanine with caffeine for a synergistic effect to promote cognition, motivation and attention. As a bonus, the caffeine jitters are reduced when combined with L-Theanine.
Dosing L-Theanine as a nootropic is 250 – 500 mg and it is water soluble.
Magnesium doesn’t get the respect it should as a nootropic. The lack of adequate levels of magnesium in your body can result in brain fog, anxiety and depression.
Magnesium can also help maintain healthy blood pressure, and help prevent sudden heart attack and stroke.
Most forms of Magnesium don’t work well as a nootropic supplement because they can’t easily cross the blood-brain barrier. A new form of magnesium called Magnesium-L-threonate is recommended for nootropic use. And is a great addition to any nootropic stack.
A typical adult dosage of magnesium-L-threonate is 1 gram per day.
A good night’s sleep is about the nearest we can get to the perfect nootropic. Melatonin (N-Acetyl-5-Methoxytryptamine) is a hormone made in your pineal gland. And it’s this hormone your body produces when its time to go to sleep.
Melatonin levels are low during the day. And peak at about 2 – 3 AM depending on your age. After that it steadily declines until morning.
When the timing is off and melatonin drops below optimal levels, you know you’re getting old(er). Or your pineal gland is not working optimally.
When the melatonin cycle is disrupted by jet-lag, aging or stress – your ability to think clearly, memory, and decision-making abilities can suffer.
Don’t take melatonin during the day or it will disrupt your natural circadian rhythm. Melatonin as a nootropic supplement taken 1 1/2 hours before bed is ideal.
The appropriate dose of melatonin can vary widely from person to person. Start with 1 – 3 mg, 90 minutes before bedtime. See how you feel. And if you readily fall and stay asleep until morning. Then adjust your dose from there – up or down. Most people don’t need any more than 3 – 5 mg. per night.
N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC) is an amino acid that regulates the amount of glutamate and dopamine in your brain. NAC is the precursor to glutathione which reduces free radicals in your brain.
N-Acetyl L-Cysteine is used as an anti-dote to Tylenol (acetaminophen) overdose and carbon monoxide poisoning.
NAC is also used to treat ADHD, Bipolar Disorder, prevent alcoholic liver damage, Alzheimer’s Disease, eliminate heavy metals, and depression.
Dosing N-Acetyl L-Cysteine as a nootropic at 600 mg up to three times per day helps with focus, motivation and concentration.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) is a highly bio-available form of the amino acid L-Tyrosine. The brain uses L-Tyrosine to produce dopamine. And the neurotransmitter norepinephrine which is your “fight or flight” hormone.
Dopamine is involved with libido, memory, focus, goal-oriented concentration, a mood elevator and anti-depressant.
Norepinephrine helps with alertness, working memory, focus, and executive function.
L-Tyrosine supports healthy glandular function and stress response because it helps with the synthesis of thyroid hormone and epinephrine (adrenalin).
Studies have found tyrosine to be useful for cold, fatigue, prolonged work, stress, sleep deprivation, and those suffering with hypothyroidism. Particularly studies within the military.[xii]
The typical dose for N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine (NALT) is 300 – 500 mg per day. This dose can be taken all at once, or dosed throughout the day. Experiment to see how you respond during your day.
NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide + Hydrogen) boosts alertness, improves mental energy and elevates mood. NADH is an antioxidant coenzyme related to the B-Vitamin family.
This coenzyme is used in the formation of ATP, the energy source within the mitochondria of your cells. It’s most highly concentrated in the body’s heart and brain. Both power-hungry organs.
NADH seems to decline with age, and is related to cell damage and accelerated cellular aging.
Dosing of NADH is 5 – 20 mg per day. NADH for nootropic benefit seems to be 10 mg.
Nefiracetam is structurally similar to Aniracetam but considered much more potent. This fat-soluble nootropic easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It works in the hippocampus area of your brain to boost memory and recall.
Nefiracetam is used clinically to treat and prevent seizures, severe depression, and has shown neuroprotective qualities.
Dosing nefiracetam is based on body weight. Acceptable dosage levels according to limited reported user experience is 100 – 900 mg. per day. Most nootropic users experience some benefit in the lower range.
Nicotine molecules attach to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain. And seem to work by regulating other receptor systems. One obvious clue to how this works – nicotine tends to make you more alert. And has a calming effect.
The primary neurotransmitter that nicotine boosts is dopamine. Which may be the reason why it’s so addictive. As a result, it can also help prevent some diseases.
Dozens of clinical studies have been published showing nicotine effective in treating Parkinson’s, ADHD, Tourette’s, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders.
Turns out the addictive quality of using tobacco isn’t entirely caused by nicotine. But by the interplay with all the other compounds found in a cigarette.
The key to using nicotine as a nootropic is NOT by smoking a cigarette. Use a nicotine patch or lozenge instead.
Recommended dosage of nicotine as a nootropic is 1 – 2 mg., preferably used sublingually.
Noopept seems to stimulate dopamine, nicotinic and serotonin receptors. It boosts cognition, memory, retention, logical thinking, improves reflex, and improves mood. Noopept has also been shown to increase Brain Nerve Growth Factor (BNGF).
Oat Straw (avena sativa) comes from green oat grass. You may have heard the term “sowing your wild oats”. Oat Straw increases luteinizing hormone in your body, and is the basis for that saying. Luteinizing hormone stimulates testosterone production.
Oat Straw is an MAO-B inhibitor and increases dopamine levels in the brain. As a nootropic, Oat Straw can improve attention, cognition, concentration and focus. All benefits experienced when your dopamine and testosterone levels are optimized.
Oat Straw extract dosage is 800 – 1600 mg per day.
Oxiracetam can boost focus, memory, mental energy, recall, and improves fluidity of thinking. It’s most often stacked with a choline supplement because it boosts the use of choline in your brain.
Oxiracetam can be paired with other nootropics in a stack. And recommended dosage is 750 – 1,500 mg per day, and preferably dosed throughout the day. You should use Oxiracetam with a good choline source like Alpha GPC or CDP Choline to avoid fatigue or headache when using it.
Phenibut was developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960’s. Phenibut is a GABA agonist and primarily binds to the GABA-B receptor. GABA-A receptor GABA agonists include alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Phenibut can have a sedative effect, and has strong anti-anxiety qualities. It can be used to combat depression, improve mood, cognitive function and motivation.
A safe starting dose of Phenibut is 2 – 300 mg. Take it on an empty stomach and expect to feel it’s full effect in 2 – 6 hours. Experienced Phenibut users will dose as high as 1.5 grams per day (NOT recommended when you’re starting out).
Easily crossing the blood-brain barrier, Phenylpiracetam is a fast-acting nootropic. It helps improve memory, recall, learning capacity, concentration, motivation and mental energy. And provides a stimulant effect.
Phenylpiracetam also helps reduce motion sickness, boosts physical performance, is anti-anxiety, and improves tolerance to cold.
Dose Phenylpiracetam 100 mg twice per day. Tolerance is likely so it’s best to cycle Phenylpiracetam. Use it when needed for a cognitive boost. Or try cycling it one week on and one week off.
Picamilon (nicotinyl-y-aminobutyric acid) is a combination of niacin (Vitamin B3) and GABA. It was developed in the Soviet Union as an enhanced form of GABA that is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier.
Once in your system, Picamilon separates into niacin and GABA. And produces a calming and blood vessel dilation effect.
Similar to Phenibut, Picamilon improves memory, concentration, motivation, focus, has strong anti-anxiety properties, and can lower blood pressure.
Start with the lowest possible dosage of Picamilon and see how you tolerate it. 50 – 300 mg per day is typical. Most nootropic users find somewhere between 50 – 100 mg. 2 to 3 times per day is optimal. It is water soluble and should be taken on an empty stomach for quicker action.
Piperine is black pepper extract. And is used with other supplements for greater and faster absorption.
Piperine taken with a supplement like curcumin will prevent the liver from breaking down the curcumin before absorption. Piperine elevates other supplement levels in your body which can be good in some case. And detrimental in others.
You’ll often see BioPerine® added as a compound in some nootropic or supplement stacks. BioPerine® is a patented form of Piperine that is said to significantly enhance the bioavailability of various nutrients through increased absorption.
Dosage is typically 5 – 20 mg of Piperine.
Piracetam was developed by Romanian chemist, and the godfather of nootropics, Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea in 1964. This is the first racetam ever developed.
Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA but does not affect the GABA receptors in your brain.
Instead, Piracetam seems to influence the AMPA and NMDA receptors. This affects learning and memory processes in the brain.
Piracetam also affects the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by boosting ACh receptors into accepting or being more sensitive to acetylcholine.
As a nootropic, piracetam boosts focus, learning, and memory. Piracetam also acts as a neuroprotectant.[xvii]
Dosing of Piracetam ranges from 1 – 4.8 grams per day. Dosed throughout the day. If it’s your first time using Piracetam start at the lower end of the range and work your up. If you’re stacking with other racetam you’ll likely use smaller quantities of Piracetam.
AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is an enzyme found inside each of our cells and works as the body’s master regulating switch. AMPK is reduced as we age. But it is possible to increase AMPK using compounds such as Rhodiola Rosea.
When AMPK is “switched on” it triggers the use of stored energy from fats, removes fats and sugars from the blood, boost mitochondria production, reduces inflammation, and takes out the cellular “garbage”.[xviii]
When AMPK is activated in brain cells it prevents diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
Rhodiola Rosea is a plant that grows at high altitudes and in cold regions of the world. It decreases depression and stress-related mood swings, reduces fatigue, stimulates energy and alertness, and boosts cognition.
Dosage of Rhodiola Rosea is from 150 – 200 mg. per day.
Phenylalanine is an amino acid that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is not produced by the body so must be obtained by food or in supplement form. Examples of natural sources of Phenylalanine are meat and milk products.
Phenylalanine is a precursor, or assists in producing the amino acid tyrosine in your brain. Tyrosine then helps in the formation and utilization of the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and melatonin.
Using Phenylalanine as a nootropic helps fight chronic pain, improve mood and boost energy. It also helps in relief from anxiety, improves focus and boost motivation. DL-Phenylalanine is used to help combat ADHD and Parkinson’s.
Phenylalanine dosage is 500 mg up to 3-times per day.
Caution should be observed if you’re taking anti-depressants.
Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid with the highest concentration found in the brain and liver. Used as a nootropic supplement, Phosphatidylcholine (PC) helps build and repair cell membranes.
When phosphatidylcholine is used as a nootropic, it separates into choline and sphingomyelin in your brain. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. And sphingomyelin helps in the development and protection of brain nerve cells.
When blood levels of choline are low, phosphatidylcholine is cannibalized from cell walls to make acetylcholine. This eventually leads to nasty diseases like Alzheimer’s, poor memory and recall, loss of focus and brain fog, and more.
To boost choline in your brain, you can supplement with phosphatidylcholine. As a nootropic supplement dosing ranges from 1,200 mg – 5 grams per day. If you are new to neurohacking, start on the lower range of the scale and dose 2 or 3 times per day.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is vital for the brain because the brain produces it. This phospholipid is found in all cells, but most highly concentrated in brain cell wall membranes.
Phosphatidylserine production declines as we age. And the reason why supplementation of this nootropic is so critical.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is now derived from plant sources, such as soybean lecithin, or sunflower lecithin. Plant derived PS is equally effective and safer than that derived from animal brain sources.
Dosing phosphatidylserine (PS) is anywhere from 100 – 300 mg per day.
PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) is an enzyme cofactor, and the only nutrient known to facilitate the growth of new mitochondria in your brain cells.
Researchers found PQQ supplementation can boost the production and release of nerve growth factors in cells that support creation of new neurons in the brain. And promotes neuroplasticity that helps neurons develop the connections needed for learning and developing memories.[xx]
More studies support PQQ’s ability to increase mitochondrial density, reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, and improve learning and memory. As an antioxidant, PQQ is thousands of times more potent than Vitamin C.
Without PQQ, mitochondria wear out and brain cells age faster. Supplementing with PQQ should give you a brain energy boost. And provide anti-aging benefits.
Dosing PQQ as a nootropic is typically 10 – 20 mg per day.
Because pramiracetam stimulates choline uptake in the brain it should be stacked with a good choline source like Alpha GPC or CDP Choline. And it’s fat-soluble so needs to be taken with food or a good fat source like fish or coconut oil.
Optimal dosage of pramiracetam as a nootropic is 1,200 mg divided into 2 or 3 doses during the day.
Pterostilbene is found in cranberries, blueberries and grapes. And is a compound similar to Resveratrol.
Pterostilbene works by modifying enzymes linked to glucose levels. It helps reduce blood sugar and cholesterol. Thus reducing oxidative stress and preventing heart attacks and stroke.
Pterostilbene is believed to be stronger than Resveratrol and has better bio-availability. Both compounds work in different ways in a human cell so are often stacked together.
Recommended dosage of Pterostilbene is 50 mg per day.
Recommended nootropic dosage of trans-resveratrol is 20 – 250 mg per day.
SAM-e (S-Adenosyl Methionine) is a naturally occurring compound in your body. It is the amino acid methionine bound to an ATP molecule.
SAM-e is used to boost mood, relieve depression, improve energy levels, and reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia.
The recommended dosage of SAM-e as a nootropic is 400 mg per day.
St John’s Wort
St John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) is a plant that has been traditionally used for mood disorders and wound healing. Today its used mostly as a treatment for anxiety, depression and stress.
A word of caution however. St John’s Wort is a strong CYP3A4 liver enzyme inducer. This enzyme is responsible for metabolizing psychoactive compounds in the liver. This translates to nullifying the effect of any other nootropics you may be taking.
Dosing St John’s Wort is anywhere from 900 to 1,800 mg per day. But be careful of using it with any other nootropics or medications.
Sulbutiamine (isobutyryl thiamine disulfide) is synthesized from Vitamin B1 (thiamine). It was first developed in Japan to treat beriberi – a Vitamin B1 deficiency.
Superior to thiamine as a nootropic because Sulbutiamine easily crosses the blood-brain barrier.
As a nootropic, Sulbutiamine is taken to boost mood, memory and motivation.
Serotonin, the “happiness molecule” relies on an adequate supply of Tryptophan for synthesis. Low levels of serotonin in the brain are often due to an inadequate supply of Tryptophan.
Tryptophan is found in abundance in oats, bananas, dried prunes, milk, tuna, cheese, bread, chicken, turkey, peanuts and chocolate. But our bodies often have problems converting this Tryptophan to serotonin in our brain.
Adding L-Tryptophan to your nootropic stack can help you boost serotonin levels. As a nootropic supplement, L-Tryptophan is used to treat anxiety, ADHD, depression, insomnia, memory loss, pain and eating disorders.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is the anti-Alzheimer’s spice. Turmeric is one of the main spices in curries. In parts of India where curries are eaten most often, Alzheimer’s disease is extremely rare.
Turmeric is unique in the ability to reduce inflammation common to Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and brain tumors.
Researchers at the Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida College of Medicine in Tampa, FL found that the curcuminoids in turmeric help break apart the plaque that clogs the brains in Alzheimer’s patients. [xxiv]
Turmeric has a combination of curcuminoids, volatile oils and proteins that make it anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-septic.
Some neurohackers maintain that turmeric or curcumin is the best nootropic. You can increase the bioavailability of turmeric by combining it with Piperine (black pepper extract) and a healthy fat like olive or coconut oil.
To witness the nootropic effects on mood and stress, dose Turmeric 2.5 – 4 grams per day.
Some concentrated extracts allow you to get the effects of Turmeric in smaller doses. Curcuma Longa (root) extract with 95% curcuminoids is dosed at 750 mg 3-times per day.
L-Tyrosine is also a precursor to thyroxin (the body’s main thyroid hormone).
You get tyrosine from almonds, bananas, dairy products, eggs, lima beans, oats, poultry and wheat germ. Tyrosine hitchhikes on the back of amino acids like tryptophan to cross the blood-brain barrier to enter your brain.
N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT) is a more bioavailable form of tyrosine when used as a nootropic.
L-Tyrosine also plays a role in controlling organs responsible for creating and regulating hormones in your body. Including your adrenal glands, pituitary gland and thyroid.
L-Tyrosine can sharpen memory, is anti-anxiety, boosts mood, and protects brain nerve cells from neurotoxins.
Typical dosage of L-Tyrosine is 500 mg – 2 grams per day. Start at the low end of the scale and work your way up as you evaluate the effects and benefits of L-Tyrosine in your body.
Uridine Monophosphate (5′-uridylic acid) is a precursor to Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). RNA provides instructions to your DNA to help create memory by facilitating connections between brain neurons (synapses).[xxv]
RNA levels decrease as we age. Supplementing with Uridine as a nootropic is one of the ultimate anti-aging tools to improve memory function.
The monophosphate portion of uridine is the transporter that helps uridine move through your digestive tract unharmed. And delivers uridine across the blood-brain barrier.
Uridine affects the synthesis of phosphatides in the brain which are critical to cellular membranes. When you increase the synaptic proteins in your brain, you boost the number of synapses. Improving various aspects of cognition.
Uridine comes from eating broccoli, sugarcane, yeast, liver, and tomatoes.
Uridine supplementation as a nootropic uplifts and stabilizes mood, is anti-stress, helps Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, is anti-anxiety and helps modulate and normalize dopamine release.
Recommended dosage for you just starting out with uridine monophosphate as a nootropic is 150 – 250 mg twice per day. Take it with a good Vitamin B-Complex and a large dose of fish oil (i.e. 700 mg DHA + 300 mg EPA).
Vinpocetine enhances brain blood flow by dilating blood vessels. And reducing blood viscosity or thickness.
Vinpocetine is derived from the periwinkle plant. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. And help improve brain blood supply, boosts oxygen and glucose use by the brain, maintains healthy levels of neurotransmitters, and promotes better concentration, focus, and memory.
Dosing Vinpocetine as a nootropic is 10 mg up to three times per day.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B1 is found in lentils, whole grains, pork, red meat, yeast, nuts, sunflower seeds, peas, milk, cauliflower and spinach.
Vitamin B1 is water soluble and is stored in your body for only 14 days. If you don’t get enough B1 you’ll experience irritability, confusion and memory problems. A severe deficiency can manifest itself as beriberi, pain, heart problems, or even paralysis.
Recommended daily dosage of Vitamin B1 is only 1.4 mg per day. You’ll experience a nootropic benefit with Vitamin B1 at higher doses of 50 – 100 mg per day.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Vitamin B3 also supports over 200 other chemical reactions in your body including cellular energy production and fatty acid synthesis.
Food sources of Vitamin B3 include beef, poultry, fish, peanuts and lentils.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) is the only B vitamin that can be synthesized in the liver from the amino acid tryptophan.
Niacin causes blood vessels to dilate or open up which is especially noticeable near the skin. Taking regular niacin as a nootropic supplement can cause a tingling sensation or red flushing of the skin.
1,000 mg of “extended-release” niacin taken 3-times per day can improve memory, and correct some senility problems. Dosing 50 – 1,000 mg at bedtime taken at bedtime may help you sleep better.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
You need Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) to synthesize coenzyme-A for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Your body cannot make Vitamin B5 on it’s own so it needs to come from food or a supplement. Vitamin B5 is found in nearly every food type. But much of the Vitamin B5 in Western processed food has been removed during processing.
Vitamin B5 also helps support fatty acid synthesis and cellular energy production in your body.
Using Vitamin B5 as a nootropic can boost focus, memory, learning, and reduce brain fog.
Recommended dosing of Vitamin B5 is 5 mg per day. But neurohackers suggest a higher dosage like a one-to-two ratio with a choline supplement. For example, 250 mg of Vitamin B5 with 500 mg of CDP Choline.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Vitamin B6 helps control homocysteine in your blood. Homocysteine is the amino acid associated with heart disease. Your body also requires Vitamin B6 to absorb Vitamin B12 and to make red blood cells and cells for your immune system.
Symptoms of low Vitamin B6 are associated with irritability, depression, nervousness, difficulty concentrating and memory loss.
Dietary sources of Vitamin B6 include poultry, tuna, salmon, shrimp, dairy products, lentils, beans, spinach, carrots, bananas, brown rice and sunflower seeds.
Recommended nootropic dosage of Vitamin B6 is up to 100 mg per day. Doses exceeding 200 mg can cause neurological disorders and loss of feeling in your legs.
Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
Vitamin B8 (Inositol) as a nootropic can boost serotonin levels which results in feelings of calm, heightened mental energy, and easy thought flow.
But is turns out Vitamin B8 is not a true “vitamin” because your body can produce small quantities of this compound on its own.
Vitamin B8 supports messenger signals throughout the body, including all the messenger signals between neurons in your brain.
Vitamin B8 (Inositol) is also used to control the symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and panic attacks.
Best food sources of Inositol are citrus fruits, green leaf vegetables, liver, brown rice and cereals.
As a nootropic, Vitamin B8 (Inositol) dosage is from 500 – 3,000 mg. per day.
Vitamin B9 (Folate)
Folate is involved in gene expression, amino acid synthesis, and myelin synthesis and repair.
Green leafy vegetables, or ‘foliage’ are rich sources of folate. And how ‘folate’ got its name. You can also get folate from citrus fruit juice, legumes, fortified foods (more on this controversy in the extended article), and liver.
Many neurohackers, including doctors and other health professionals confuse folate with folic acid. They are NOT the same.
In the extended article, we explore the differences between folate and folic acid. And how Vitamin B9 (Folate) is critical for the fully optimized brain.
As a nootropic, Vitamin B9 (Folate) dosage is 400 mcg. per day.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency is common among Western adults.[xxvi] Vitamin B12 plays a key role in the efficient conversion of carbohydrates to glucose – your cell’s source of fuel. It also helps your body to convert fatty acids into energy.
Brain fog and poor memory are two key warning signs your deficient in Vitamin B12. Other warning signs include fatigue, lack of energy, muscle weakness, mood swings, depression, dementia and Alzheimer’s.
Vitamin B12 is the largest vitamin we know of so it’s not as easily absorbed as others. As you get older the body loses the ability to transport Vitamin B12 in the cells in your large intestine where it’s pulled into your bloodstream.
The older you get the more difficult it is for you to get ANY B12 into your body. So the older you get the more likely you’ll need to supplement with Vitamin B12.
B12 in its natural form is only available through animal food sources including seafood, beef, chicken, pork, milk and eggs.
To get an adequate supply of Vitamin B12 as you get older is really only available through supplementation.
Even though B12 is water soluble, it doesn’t exit your body as quickly as other water-soluble supplements. It’s stored in your liver, kidneys and other body tissues. This means a deficiency may not show up for a number of years. But by then it may be too late and irreversible brain damage can potentially result.
The best way to dose Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) as a nootropic is sublingually (under the tongue), or a B12 shot. The first way is much less expensive and considerably less painful.
Higher quality Vitamin B12 comes as methylcobalamin or adenosylcobalamin which are the forms of B12 naturally occurring in your body.
The recommended dosage for Vitamin B12 deficiency is 2,000 mcg daily for a week, then 1,000 mcg doses of B12 once per week for a month. Then your maintenance dose is 1,000 mcg monthly.[xxvii]
[i] Wurtman R., Regan M., Ulus I., Yu L. “Effect of Oral CDP-Choline on Plasma Choline and Uridine Levels in Humans” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 60, pp. 989–992, 2000.
[ii] PETILLO, D. and HULTIN, H. O. (2008), “UBIQUINONE-10 AS AN ANTIOXIDANT”. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 32: 173–181. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2008.00151.x
[iii] Dimpfel W., Wedekind W., Keplinger I. “Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states.” European Journal of Medical Research 2003 May 30;8(5):183-91. (source)
[iv] Westenberg H.G.M., Kahn R. “L-5-Hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders” Department of Biological Psychiatry, State University, Utrecht The Netherlands March–April, 1985Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 197–200 (source)
[vi] Soumyanath A, Zhong Y, Gold S, Yu X, Koop D, Bourdette D, Gold B. "Centella asiatica accelerates nerve regeneration upon oral administration and contains multiple active fractions increasing neurite elongation in-vitro." J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57(9):1221-9.
[vii] Qian M., Wang D., Watkins W.E., Gebski V., Yan Y.Q., Li M., Chen Z.P. “The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;14(1):32-42. (source)
[viii] Thompson R., Ruch W., Hasenöhrl R.U. “Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts of Piper methysticum (Kava-kava).” Human Psychopharmacology 2004 Jun;19(4):243-50. (source)
[ix] GALEA-DEBONO A., JENNER P., MARSDEN C.D., PARKES J.D., TARSY D., WALTERS J. “Plasma DOPA levels and growth hormone response to levodopa in Parkinsonism” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1977, 40, 162-167 (source)
[xi] World Health Organization. “Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water: Public Health Significance.” Geneva: World Health Organization Press; 2009.
[xiii] Rashid M.H., Ueda H. “Nonopioid and neuropathy-specific analgesic action of the nootropic drug nefiracetam in mice.” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2002 Oct;303(1):226-31. (source)
[xiv] Shimada M, Shikanai Y, Shimomura K, Harada S, Watanabe G, Taya K, Kato M, Furuhama K. “Investigation of testicular toxicity of nefiracetam, a neurotransmission enhancer, in rats.” Drug Safety Research Laboratory, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
[xvi] Bobkov Iu.G., Morozov I.S., Glozman O.M., Nerobkova L.N., Zhmurenko L.A. “Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam” Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1983 Apr;95(4):50-3. (source)
[xvii] Waegemans T., Wilsher C.R., Danniau A., Ferris S.H., Kurz A., Winblad B. “Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis.” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2002;13(4):217-24. (source)
[xx] Murase K., Hattori A., Kohno M., Hayashi K. “Stimulation of nerve growth factor synthesis/secretion in mouse astroglial cells by coenzymes.” Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 1993 Jul;30(4):615-21. (source)
[xxii] Kennedy DO, Wightman EL, Reay JL, Lietz G, Okello EJ, Wilde A, Haskell CF. “Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in human: a double-blind placebo-controlled, cross investigation.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
[xxiii] Torres-Pérez M, Tellez-Ballesteros RI, Ortiz-López L et al., (2015). “Resveratrol Enhances Neuroplastic Changes, Including Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Memory in Balb/C Mice at Six Months of Age.” PLOS One 22;10(12):e0145687. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145687. eCollection 2015.
[xxv] LEI WANG, POOLER Amy M., ALBRECHT Meredith A., WURTMAN Richard J. “Dietary uridine-5'-monophosphate supplementation increases potassium-evoked dopamine release and promotes neurite outgrowth in aged rats” Journal of molecular neuroscience 2005, vol. 27, no1, pp. 137-145 (source)
[xxvii] Butler C. et. Al. “Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials” Oxford Journal Vol. 23 Issue 3, Pg. 279-285 (source)