Phenylpiracetam improves concentration and motivation


David Tomen
David Tomen
Jill Corleone, RD
Fact Checked:
Jill Corleone, RD
11 minute read
Phenylpiracetam has been shown to boost alertness, cognition, clarity, focus, learning and memory, provides a stimulant-effect, and reduces symptoms of depression and anxiety

Key Takeaways

  1. Phenylpiracetam is a powerful water-soluble nootropic that enhances cognition, memory, focus, learning, and physical stamina, with a stimulant effect.
  2. It is 20 to 60 times more potent than Piracetam due to the addition of a phenyl group, which increases its bioavailability and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
  3. Phenylpiracetam is banned in professional sports due to its performance-enhancing properties, including improved athletic performance and resistance to cold.
  4. It has clinical applications as a treatment for epilepsy and is used as a prescription drug in Russia and Eastern European countries.
  5. Phenylpiracetam dosage recommendation is 100 mg 2-times per day.


Phenylpiracetam ((R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide, Phenotropil, Fenotropil, Carphedon, Fonturacetam) is a water-soluble nootropic in the racetam-class of compounds.

Phenylpiracetam was created by adding a phenyl group to Piracetam by Russian scientists in 1983. It was developed as a nootropic to boost cognition, and to improve physical stamina.

It turns out that Phenylpiracetam is very effective in boosting athletic performance. It provides significant stimulatory effects and helps you resist cold. Leading to a ban by the World Anti-Doping Agency from use by athletes in the Olympics and other professional sports.[i]Phenypiracetam banned in Oympics

Russian cyclist Anton Reshetnikov was suspended in 2007 for 2 years from the International Cycling Union for using Carphedon.[ii] One year earlier (2006), Russian Olympic athlete Olga Pyleleva lost her silver metal for using Carphedon.[iii]

Carphedon is a brand name for Phenylpiracetam. Adding a phenyl group to Piracetam boosts the bioavailability of Phenylpiracetam. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and is considered 20 to 60-times more potent than Piracetam.[iv]

Neurohackers report that Phenylpiracetam enhances alertness, focus, memory, and learning. It reduces brain fog. And it provides physical stamina and cold tolerance while combating physical and mental fatigue.

Phenylpiracetam helps:

  • Prevent Anxiety & Fear: Phenylpiracetam helps reduce symptoms of anxiety and fear. Unlike popular prescription anti-anxiety and anti-depressant drugs, Phenylpiracetam has no sedative action or other adverse side effects associated with these medications.[v]
  • Neuroreceptors: Phenylpiracetam increases the density of acetylcholine (ACh), NMDA, GABA and dopamine receptors in the brain.[vi][vii]More receptors mean more binding sites for neurotransmitters that affect memory formation, cognition, sleep and mood.
  • Cerebral Circulation: Phenylpiracetam increases blood flow in the brain. As a derivative of Piracetam, this nootropic has the same mechanism of action when it comes to blood flow. It suppresses the constriction of blood vessels allowing the freer flow of blood. More oxygen and nutrients get to brain cells boosting alertness, cognition, focus and mood.[viii]


Phenylpiracetam (((R,S)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide) was created by adding a phenyl group to the original nootropic Piracetam.

Phenylpiracetam chemical structure

Russian chemists synthesized Phenylpiracetam in 1983 to boost the physical and mental performance of astronauts during space flight. It’s currently used by Russian cosmonauts on the International Space Station.[ix]

Phenylpiracetam combats physical and mental fatigue. It enhances memory, mood and focus. It facilitates learning and retention, reduces brain fog, increases alertness and boosts physical stamina and tolerance to cold.

Phenylpiracetam is also an effective treatment for epilepsy. This debilitating condition is caused by sudden surges of electrical activity in the brain. This temporary disturbance in messaging systems between brain cells can cause a seizure. Normal brain function gets halted or mixed up. This is where Phenylpiracetam comes in.

Phenylpiracetam has been shown in animal studies to affect Alpha and Beta brain waves.[x] Scientists haven’t quite figured out why it works, but Phenylpiracetam has an ‘anti-convulsive’ action in the brain. They did conclude after one clinical trial, “Phenotropil reduced the frequency of seizures and improved cognitive function in the absence of epileptiform EEG abnormalities.”[xi]

Phenylpiracetam is sold as a prescription drug in Russia and several Eastern European countries. In the United States, Phenylpiracetam is sold as an unregulated OTC research compound.

Phenylpiracetam works as a stimulant

How does Phenylpiracetam work in the Brain?

Phenylpiracetam boosts brain health and function in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

  1. Phenylpiracetam as a stimulant. Phenylpiracetam increases the density of neuroreceptors. Studies have shown it increases the density of acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine, GABA, and NMDA receptors. This translates into more receptors for each of these important neurotransmitters to bind with and boost their effectiveness.

The increase in density of neuroreceptors likely accounts for Phenylpiracetam’s stimulant-like properties. Similar to Ritalin or Adderall, this nootropic increases the effectiveness of dopamine in your brain. Increasing alertness, decision-making capability, and cognition.

But unlike stimulants like Ritalin and Adderall, Phenylpiracetam does not come with any stimulant-like side effects. You should not experience any fatigue, rapid heartbeat, decreased appetite or irritability. Rather you’ll feel increased stamina, have more physical endurance and get smarter.

Just don’t try using Phenylpiracetam if you’re planning on being an Olympic athlete. It was banned several years ago because it’s too effective to be used in professional sports. We don’t want an unfair advantage now, do we?

  1. Phenylpiracetam decreases anxiety and depression. For similar reasons to how Phenylpiracetam works as a stimulant, it can also tame symptoms of anxiety and depression. Animal studies show that it increases the density of receptors for acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and NMDA receptors.[xii]

This increase in receptor sites for GABA, choline and glutamate affects levels of the calming neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin in your brain. Studies in Russia using Wistar rats shows that Phenylpiracetam floods your brain with the neurochemicals you need to chill out.[xiii]

How things go bad

As we get older, our brain chemistry and metabolism changes. And it seems these changes are affecting younger and younger people.

Recall, reaction time and learning capacity declinesPhenylpiracetam boosts cognition

↓ Neurotransmitter levels decline

↓ Density of ACh, GABA and NMDA, and dopamine receptors decline

↓ Acetylcholine levels decline

Cerebral blood flow declines

↓ Stamina and endurance decline

All of these changes are contributing factors to age-related cognitive decline. Early signs of these effects can be seen in poor decision-making, difficulty learning, and even recalling simple things like an important appointment.

But even if you’re not concerned with the signs of aging, Phenylpiracetam can help.

Phenylpiracetam benefits

Phenylpiracetam is highly bioavailable when used as a nootropic. Once digested it quickly gets absorbed and crosses the blood-brain barrier.Phenylpiracetam boosts physical performance

Phenylpiracetam modulates neuroreceptors. It’s been shown to increase the density of receptors for GABA, NMDA, dopamine and acetylcholine.

More neuroreceptors result in more of each neurotransmitter being able to bind to neurons. And affect alertness, cognition, memory, recall and mood.

Phenylpiracetam has a positive effect on physical performance by increasing endurance, and reducing physical and mental fatigue. In fact, these effects are so potent that Phenylpiracetam has been banned from professional sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Phenylpiracetam has been shown to act as a stimulant. But unlike pharmaceutical drugs, it does not affect your cardiovascular or respiratory system. And does not have the side effects of jitteriness, restlessness or irritability like regular stimulants.

Phenylpiracetam is also noted for increasing your threshold to tolerance for cold.

How does Phenylpiracetam feel?

Phenylpiracetam improves concentration and motivationMany neurohackers say Phenylpiracetam is the strongest nootropic they’ve ever experienced. It’s highly bioavailable and you experience the effects within 30 minutes of taking it.

Phenylpiracetam users say it increases concentration, motivation, memory, physical endurance, and tolerance to cold. Learning is quicker and stress is reduced.

People report that learning and processing information becomes easier with Phenylpiracetam. You’re not re-reading sentences and paragraphs trying to understand them.

Short and long-term memory improves. Motor skills improve so you’re typing faster and more accurately.

Those dealing with depression report a decrease in depressive symptoms. More confidence helps in social situations and conversations are easier.

Productivity rises and you assume a “get it done’ mentality. Procrastination is a thing of the past.

Phenylpiracetam is a popular pre-workout supplement. It increases your endurance and reduces both physical and mental fatigue. And if you’re one of the unfortunate ones who live in a cold climate you’ll find that your tolerance for cold is better.

Phenypiracetam improves cold tolerance

Phenylpiracetam Clinical Pharmacology & Research

Phenylpiracetam was developed in Russia in 1983. And the majority of research done with this nootropic has been conducted in Russia. Published in Russian medical journals in Russian.

So we have limited clinical trial data to draw on. And like many nootropics we rely on nootropic user reviews. The following is two samples of clinical trials I was able to find that have been translated into English. And published in Western medical databases.

Phenylpiracetam Improves Cognition

A study done by Russian researchers investigated the effects of Phenylpiracetam on cognition. 99 adults aged 40 – 60 suffering from cognition deficits due to surgery or brain trauma were enrolled in this study.

Volunteers were given 200 mg of Phenylpiracetam daily for 30 days. The researchers found that those using the nootropic showed a significant improvement in motor coordination, higher brain function, memory, attention and counting. And a reduction in both anxiety and depression.[xiv]

Phenylpiracetam Boosts Cerebral Circulation

Researchers in Moscow recruited 400 patients suffering from ischemic stroke. This is the most common type of stroke where blood vessels carrying blood to the brain are blocked by a blood clot.

Half of the group received 400 mg of Phenylpiracetam daily for a year. The control group got a placebo.

The research team found that the group who received Phenylpiracetam experienced a significant restoration in cognitive functions, and resumed daily activities. Far better than the control group who took a placebo.[xv]

Phenylpiracetam Recommended Dosage

Recommended Phenylpiracetam dosage is 100 mg twice per day. One Phenylpiracetam dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon.

Don’t use Phenylpiracetam later in the day because its stimulant effect can cause insomnia.

You can develop a tolerance to Phenylpiracetam, so consider taking it only on days when you need the extra focus. Or try cycling it one week on and one week off.

Phenylpiracetam Side Effects

Phenylpiracetam is non-toxic. So is considered well-tolerated and safe.

As with many of the racetams, Phenylpiracetam can cause headaches because it boosts the use of acetylcholine in your brain. Choline supplements like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline can help you avoid this side effect.

According to an animal study, Phenylpiracetam was reported to reduce body weight gain by a significant amount in obese rats. However, since rat brain neurotransmitter receptors differ from humans, it is impossible to say for sure if Phenylpiracetam has similar metabolic benefits in humans at this time.

Tolerance is a problem with Phenylpiracetam and builds rather quickly. Commonly reported dosages sit at around 12x that of Noopept. It will soon lose its effects if used in excess. So try using Phenylpiracetam only when you need extra cognitive performance, or before a workout. Or try cycling it one week on and one week off to avoid tolerance.

Many neurohackers find that stacking Phenylpiracetam with a choline supplement boosts the effect even more with improved memory and cognition. And this is supported in several research studies.

Where to buy Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam is sold in tablet, capsule and powder form. Tablets and capsules are usually 100 mg each.

You can currently buy Phenylpiracetam from Cosmic Nootropic – Phenylpiracetam. The company sells brand name and patented forms of many of the racetams and is highly recommended.

Nootropics Expert Recommendation

Phenylpiracetam 100 mg 2-times per day

Nootropics Expert Tested and ApprovedI recommend using Phenylpiracetam as a nootropic supplement.

Your body does not make Phenylpiracetam on its own. So to get its benefits you must take it as a supplement.

Phenylpiracetam is especially helpful for those suffering from ADHD or brain fog. This nootropic has a stimulant-like effect similar to that of pharmaceutical stimulants. But without the side effects of increased heart rate, irritability and restlessness.

Phenylpiracetam can boost athletic performance. It has been shown to improve physical performance, increase stamina and endurance. And even provides cold-weather resistance.

Phenylpiracetam is also particularly useful to students and executives who want to boost mental function including alertness, cognition, clarity, focus, learning and memory. This nootropic also has anti-depressant and anti-anxiety benefits.

Studies have shown that Phenylpiracetam can be effective in relieving the frequency of epileptic seizures in those dealing with epilepsy. It even compliments some epilepsy medications.

You should use Phenylpiracetam with a good choline supplement like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline. It helps boost the effectiveness of neural acetylcholine, so demands the presence of more choline in your brain.

You can safely boost daily intake of Phenylpiracetam to 400 mg. But be aware that tolerance to the effects of this nootropic build quickly. So we recommend using Phenylpiracetam only on days when you need the extra cognitive ability. Or cycle the use of this nootropic one week on, and one week off.

You can currently buy Phenylpiracetam from Cosmic Nootropic – Phenylpiracetam. The company sells brand name and patented forms of many of the racetams and is highly recommended.

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Prohibited Lists January 2016 World Anti-Doping Guide (source)

[ii] “Two Russian U23 riders positive” Cycling News Oct. 18, 2007 retrieved June 30, 2016 (source)

[iii] Piper E. “Pyleva says she took drugs by mistake” Feb. 17, 2006 Retrieved June 30, 2016 (source)

[iv] Malykh A.G., Sadaie M.R. “Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs”Drugs February 2010, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 287-312 (source)

[v] Akhapkina V.I., Akhapkin R.V. in Russian “[Identification and evaluation of the neuroleptic activity of phenotropil].” Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2013;113(7):42-6. (source)

[vi] Firstova Y.Y., Abaimov D.A., Kapitsa I.G., Voronina T.A., Kovalev G.I. “The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task” Neurochemical Journal June 2011, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 115-125 (source)

[vii] Zvejniece L. et. Al. “Investigation into Stereoselective Pharmacological Activity of Phenotropil” Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Volume 109, Issue 5, pages 407–412, November 2011 (source)

[viii] Mirzoian R.S., Gan’shina T.S. in Russian “[Mechanism of the cerebrovascular effect of piracetam].” Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1985 Jan;99(1):64-6. (source)

[ix] Zvejniece L. et. Al. “Investigation into Stereoselective Pharmacological Activity of Phenotropil” Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology Volume 109, Issue 5, pages 407–412, November 2011 (source)

[x] Gower A.J., Noyer M., Verloes R., Gobert J., Wülfert E. “ucb L059, a novel anti-convulsant drug: pharmacological profile in animals.”European Journal of Pharmacology. 1992 Nov 10;222(2-3):193-203. (source)

[xi] Grebeniuk O.V., Zhukova N.G., Alifirova V.M. in Russian “[The efficacy of add-on treatment with phenotropil in adult patients with locally-induced epilepsy.]” Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(11 Vypusk 2. V pomoshch’ prakticheskomu vrachu):27-31. (source)

[xii] Firstova Y.Y., Abaimov D.A., Kapitsa G., Voronina T.A., Kovalev G.I. “The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task” Neurochemical Journal June 2011, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 115-125 (source)

[xiii] Samotrueva M.A., Tyurenkov I.N., Teplyi D.L., Serezhnikova T.K., Khlebtsova E.B. “Psychoimmunomodulatory effect of phenotropil in animals with immune stress.” Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2011 May;151(1):51-4. (source)

[xiv] Savchenko A.Iu., Zakharova N.S., Stepanov I.N. in Russian “[The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions].”Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2005;105(12):22-6. (source)

[xv] Koval’chuk V.V., Skoromets A.A., Koval’chuk I.V., Stoianova E.G., Vysotskaia M.L., Melikhova E.V., Il’iaĭnen E.V. in Russian “[Efficacy of phenotropil in the rehabilitation of stroke patients].” Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2010;110(12 Pt 2):38-40. (source)

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Join The Discussion - 107 comments

March 31, 2023

Phenylpiracetam increases the density of acetylcholine (ACh), NMDA, GABA, and dopamine receptors in the brain.

Piracetam can’t increase the density of GABA and dopamine receptors?

March 24, 2023

I wonder how phenylpiracetam causes tolerance, doesn’t receptor density increase permanently, after withdrawal receptor density may decrease?

    David Tomen
    March 28, 2023

    That is an unknown. It may work that way but I haven’t seen any hard proof that it works that way.

March 23, 2023

Do you think it does a better job than piracetam for increasing receptor sensitivity to acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters?

    David Tomen
    March 28, 2023

    Dan, Phenylpiracetam increases the density of several dopamine receptors and acetylcholine receptors ( Piracetam also increases acetylcholine receptor density but I do think as much as Phenylpiracetam does although I can’t prove it.

      March 31, 2023

      thanks for the answer!

Danny O
January 29, 2023

Hello, I’ve noticed it’s available again, at least from the Amazon seller I purchased from before.

Phenylpiracetam Powder, 25 Grams – Life Science Solutions

    David Tomen
    January 30, 2023

    Thanks Danny. But that may be only in your country. Because Amazon in the USA would never allow someone to sell any of the racetams in their store online in the USA.

      March 26, 2023

      Hi David, I am a strong follower of your publications and am using phenylpiracetam myself with choline. 2 Questions:
      – As of March 26th, 2023: Where do you suggest I can buy 100mg / 30 days?
      – What is your experience with co-applying it while using XANAX? Can I reduce the xanax?

        David Tomen
        March 31, 2023

        Cyrus, there is a link in the Where to Buy section above for this racetam and they have it in stock. I have seen no evidence that it may be contraindicated with Xanax. Best to check with your doctor to be safe.

Dor Konforty
November 22, 2022

Gives me a huge crash after, even with 15-25mg. Any advice for that? I would take it every other day otherwise.

    David Tomen
    November 28, 2022

    Dor, are you using it with Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline? If you are then this sounds like the wrong supplement for you.

    June 12, 2023

    I’ve seen multiple time that phenylpiracetam acts as well as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Is it true ?

      David Tomen
      June 12, 2023

      Pascal, if you are referring only to the “stimulant” benefits of dopamine reuptake inhibitors then yes, it’s true.

October 31, 2022

A vendor near me is selling Phenylpiracetam Hydrazide (But just plain Phenylpiracetam isn’t available here). Do you know anything about it as info on it seems a bit scarce. Thanks!

    David Tomen
    November 3, 2022

    Dewan, that combo was developed in Russia as an anticonvulsant: hmurenko, L. A., et al. “Synthesis of 4-Phenylpyrrolidone Derivatives with Anticonvulsant and Nootropic Activity.” Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, vol. 53, no. 5, Aug. 2019, pp. 429+. Look up the study and it’ll show you comparing it to Piracetam.

Gabriel William
July 28, 2022

Phenylpiracetam. Let the public discover something good, and usually, the price goes up. But this is just too good, so they prevent it from the USA. The government doesn’t want the public to get smart.
Now, David, I’ve watched many, if not all, of your videos and have your book. so I turn to you for the answer to this question.
Where can I purchase more Phenylpiracetam?
I know it can be purchased from Alibaba in China but can not be shipped to the USA; anywhere else seems okay.

All the sites I have purchased over the last few years and out of stock. They are just not informing the public that it appears to be banned.

Your help and suggestions are required.

    David Tomen
    July 29, 2022

    Gabriel, all the racetams are produced in China and imported to the USA and other countries. But there are two major problems with all racetams in the USA right now. First, the FDA sent warning letters to a handful of companies who either went out of business or just stopped selling any racetams. Second, supply chain issues because of the pandemic has affected the entire supplement industry. Again many are produced in China and US companies are having a hard time getting their supply.

Ted Bender
December 22, 2021

Thanks for your research and many articles!

I recently came across an item called phenylpiracetam hydroxide. Is this the same as phenylpiracetam? If different, do you have any advice about it vs the other? Do you consider one as safe as the other? Would be appreciative of your take on any differences. Thank you!

    Ted Bender
    December 22, 2021

    Sorry meant to say hydrazine, but spell check intervened.

      David Tomen
      December 26, 2021

      Ted, there is only one kind of Phenylpiracetam. Different manufacturers may call it by the full chemical name but it is still Phenylpiracetam.

    David Tomen
    December 23, 2021

    Ted, it’s just another name for phenylpiracetam.

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