polygala tenuifolia experience

Polygala Tenuifolia

David Tomen
David Tomen
8 minute read
Polygala Tenuifolia is known for its anti-anxiety and stress-relieving effects, reducing depression, and promoting restful sleep.

Polygala Tenuifolia (Yuan Zhi) is an herb used for millennia in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Polygala Tenuifolia as a nootropic is anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anxiolytic.

It was traditionally used to improve memory, and for colds and mild respiratory problems.

Polygala Tenuifolia is one of the 50 top herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Polygala Tenuifolia as a nootropic is:

  1. Neuroprotective: Polygala Tenuifolia is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Helping to protect from Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other age-related cognitive disorders.
  1. Neuroplasticity: Polygala Tenuifolia promotes the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Increased BDNF results it improved learning and memory.[i]
  1. Antidepressant: Polygala Tenuifolia extract acts as an MAOI which promotes the release of dopamine and norepinephrine. And it inhibits the release of cortisol providing anti-anxiety benefits.[ii]


Polygala Tenuifolia is an herb belonging to the Milkwort family. It’s root -known as Polygalae Radix has been used for over 2000 years in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

The active components found in Polygala Tenuifolia include saponins, ginsenosides, oligosaccharides, ketones, alkaloids, polysaccharides, and flavonoids.[iii]

In Chinese, it is called “Yuan Zhi” and has traditionally been used for memory and to prevent Alzheimer’s and dementia. In Korean traditional medicine, it is used as an anti-psychotic because it is a serotonin and dopamine receptor antagonist[iv]

Polygala Tenuifolia is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2015.

The rhizome of Polygala Tenuifolia is used in making cough medicine and for respiratory disorders because it helps clear air passages.[v]

Polygala Tenuifolia has also been used traditionally to reduce inflammation, learning and memory, dementia, anxiety, energy, and cancer.[vi]

In 2014, a study conducted at the Peking Union Medical College in Beijing found Polygala Tenuifolia extract worked as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE) which increases acetylcholine activity in the brain.

The researchers also found Polygala Tenuifolia extract acted as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) which increases dopamine and norepinephrine use in the brain. Inhibiting both of these enzymes resulted in improved learning and memory.[vii]

what does polygala tenuifolia do in the brain?How does Polygala Tenuifolia work in the brain?

Polygala Tenuifolia boosts brain health and function in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

  1. Polygala Tenuifolia for learning and memory. Studies show Polygala Tenuifolia supports dopamine and norepinephrine signaling, upregulates acetylcholine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and boosts synaptic transmission in the hippocampus for better learning and memory.[viii]

A study conducted at Seoul National University wanted to find out if Polygala Tenuifolia extract (BT-11) could enhance memory in healthy humans.

Participants received capsules of BT-11 or a placebo 3-times per day for 4 weeks.  The study found those supplementing with BT-11 showed significant increases in working memory but not the placebo group.[ix]

  1. Polygala Tenuifolia for depression. In animal studies, the compound 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) found in Polygala Tenuifolia has been shown to inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B, reduces cortisol release, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (which causes oxidative stress).

The reduction of cortisol, oxidative stress, and increased dopamine and norepinephrine release has consistently been shown to act as an anti-depressant.[x]

How things go bad

Neurotransmitter dysfunction, oxidative stress, increased cortisol, and inflammation often results in:

↑ Increased depression

↓ Memory loss

↑ Insomnia

↑ Obesity

↑ Anxiety

Supplementing with Polygala Tenuifolia has been shown in multiple clinical studies as well as user reports to relieve anxiety and depression, improve memory, support healthy sleep, and avoid neurodegenerative disease.

polygala tenuifolia benefitsPolygala Tenuifolia benefits 

Polygala Tenuifolia is one of the most frequently mentioned herbs in the Zhong Hua Yi Dian (“Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine“) for memory disorders and improvement.[xi]

Polygala Tenuifolia acts as an MOA inhibitor which increases dopamine and norepinephrine in your brain.

This ancient Chinese herb helps reduce cortisol, inhibits inflammation, and regulates glutamate AMPA receptors.

Polygala Tenuifolia extract has been shown to reduce the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8 levels in the hippocampus. Which has been shown in animal studies to have a significant effects on learning and memory.

Polygala Tenuifolia boosts the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), increase synaptic plasticity, and decrease the accumulation of amyloid β-protein implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease.

It has also been found to increase dopamine neurons and improve motor impairment in Parkinson’s Disease.[xii]

Neurohackers consistently report Polygala Tenuifolia is a potent anxiolytic and reduces anxiety quickly especially when used sublingually.

How does Polygala Tenuifolia feel? 

polygala tenuifolia experienceNeurohackers report that when using Polygala Tenuifolia as a nootropic helps them say bye to melancholia and hello to happiness.

Others report feeling calmer and more focused the first day they used Polygala Tenuifolia. For some it can take a week or two to feel the full benefit of this supplement.

Some say it provides a nice but small mood boost and they prefer it over St. John’s wort.

Polygala Tenuifolia seems to be effective for Seasonal Affective Mood Disorder (SAD).

The calming benefit of Polygala Tenuifolia is more pronounced and happens quicker when used sublingually.

Within less than a minute it felt like the Divine hand came down and grabbed all the negativity and replaced it with serenity and a strong not giving a f**k feeling”.

Used sublingually, some say using Polygala Tenuifolia was more effective for sleep than any other nootropic they’ve tried.

Polygala Tenuifolia is a game-changer for some because it gives them the mental space to become the observer and be more mindful. Making it easier to recognize and mitigate negative thought patterns.

Like any nootropic supplement, Polygala Tenuifolia will not work for everyone.

But if you are fortunate and it works for you, it may help you feel again, music may sound better, and you’ll feel human again.

Polygala Tenuifolia Clinical Research

Most of the clinical studies with Polygala Tenuifolia are animal studies. The very few with humans have been conducted primarily with the elderly for improving working memory and cognition. And for improving sleep.

Polygala Tenuifolia for sleep

polygala tenuifolia side effectsThe active component found in Polygala Tenuifolia that provides it sedative effective is Senegenin.[xiii]

A study conducted in China using mice found the Tenuifolin found in Polygala Tenuifolia increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM). Mimicking natural sleep patterns.

The researchers found the sleep-enhancing effects of this herbal extract were due to decreased norepinephrine, and increased GABA and acetylcholine levels in brain regions involved with sleep. [xiv]

Polygala Tenuifolia improves memory

Polygala Tenuifolia has been used for centuries as a sedative. And more recent research shown its effectiveness for improving memory in animal studies and in healthy humans.

So, researchers in South Korea wanted to find out if Polygala Tenuifolia extract could also benefit memory in elderly humans.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using the Polygala Tenuifolia extract BT-11 was conducted with approx. 50 elderly people.

The researchers found that supplementing with Polygala Tenuifolia extract (BT-11) significantly improved short-term memory and recall in elderly people.

And the research team concluded “BT-11 could enhance some cognitive functions including memory in elderly humans. And may be used as a nutraceutical for disease prevention and/or treatment”. [xv]

Polygala Tenuifolia Recommended Dosage 

polygala tenuifolia dosageThe recommended adult dosage for Polygala Tenuifolia extract is 100 – 300 mg up to 3-times per day.

Supplementing with Polygala Tenuifolia at the adult dose has also been found to be safe in children and young people up to 19 years of age.[xvi]

Polygala Tenuifolia Side Effects 

Polygala Tenuifolia is considered non-toxic and safe to use a nootropic supplement.

Polygala Tenuifolia may cause vomiting, diarrhea, and mild indigestion in some people.

Type of Polygala Tenuifolia to Buy 

Polygala Tenuifolia extract is available in capsules, tubs of powder, and as a tincture for sublingual use.

Users consistently report they experience the benefits of Polygala Tenuifolia faster and it’s more powerful when used sublingually. 

I recommend Polygala Tenuifolia sold by Nootropics Depot in capsules or powder form

Nootropic Expert® Recommendation 

Nootropics Expert Tested and ApprovedPolygala Tenuifolia extract 100 – 300 mg up to 3-times per day.

I recommend using Polygala Tenuifolia extract as a nootropic supplement.

Your body does not make Polygala Tenuifolia on its own. So, to get its benefits you must take it as a supplement.

Polygala Tenuifolia is especially helpful for those dealing with anxiety and stress.

Polygala Tenuifolia is reported to work well for those suffering from insomnia.

This ancient Chinese herb helps relieve the symptoms of depression by acting as an MAOI and acetylcholine levels. And reducing the proinflammatory cytokines often found elevated in those with depression.

And Polygala Tenuifolia has been found to help with learning and memory particularly with older neurohackers.

Polygala Tenuifolia extract is water soluble so can be taken at any time with a glass of water.[xvii] 

Many report you will feel the benefits of using Polygala Tenuifolia if you take it sublingually.

I recommend Polygala Tenuifolia capsules or powder offered by Nootropics Depot – Polygala Tenuifolia

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Xue W, Hu JF, Yuan YH, et al. “Polygalasaponin XXXII from Polygala tenuifolia root improves hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.” Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(9):1211-1219. (source)

[ii] Hu, Y., Liu, M., Liu, P., Guo, D. H., Wei, R. B., & Rahman, K. (2011). “Possible mechanism of the antidepressant effect of 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose from Polygala tenuifolia Willd.” The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology63(6), 869–874. (source)

[iii] Jiang, N., Wei, S., Zhang, Y., He, W., Pei, H., Huang, H., Wang, Q., & Liu, X. (2021). Protective Effects and Mechanism of Radix Polygalae Against Neurological Diseases as Well as Effective Substance. Frontiers in psychiatry12, 688703. (source)

[iv] Chung, I. W., Moore, N. A., Oh, W. K., O’Neill, M. F., Ahn, J. S., Park, J. B., Kang, U. G., & Kim, Y. S. (2002). Behavioural pharmacology of polygalasaponins indicates potential antipsychotic efficacy. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior71(1-2), 191–195. (Source)

[v] Rubin B. K. (2006). The pharmacologic approach to airway clearance: mucoactive agents. Paediatric respiratory reviews7 Suppl 1, S215–S219. (Source)

[vi] Lacaille-Dubois, M. A., Delaude, C., & Mitaine-Offer, A. C. (2020). A review on the phytopharmacological studies of the genus Polygala. Journal of ethnopharmacology249, 112417. (Source)

[vii] Li, Z., Liu, Y., Wang, L., Liu, X., Chang, Q., Guo, Z., Liao, Y., Pan, R., & Fan, T. P. (2014). Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM2014, 392324. (Source)

[viii] Xue, W., Hu, Jf., Yuan, Yh. et al. “Polygalasaponin XXXII from Polygala tenuifolia root improves hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.” Acta Pharmacol Sin 30, 1211–1219 (2009). (source)

[ix] Lee, J. Y., Kim, K. Y., Shin, K. Y., Won, B. Y., Jung, H. Y., & Suh, Y. H. (2009). “Effects of BT-11 on memory in healthy humans.” Neuroscience letters454(2), 111–114 (source)

[x] Hu, Y., Liu, M., Liu, P., Guo, D. H., Wei, R. B., & Rahman, K. (2011). Possible mechanism of the antidepressant effect of 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose from Polygala tenuifolia Willd. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology63(6), 869–874 (source)

[xi] May, B. H., Lu, C., Lu, Y., Zhang, A. L., & Xue, C. C. (2013). “Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.” Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies6(1), 2–11 (source)

[xii] Jiang N., Wei S., Zhang Y., He W., Pei H., Huang H., Wang Q., Liu X “Protective Effects and Mechanism of Radix Polygalae Against Neurological Diseases as Well as Effective Substance” Frontiers in Psychiatry 17 December 2021 (source)

[xiii] Luo, H., Sun, S. J., Wang, Y., & Wang, Y. L. (2020). Revealing the sedative-hypnotic effect of the extracts of herb pair Semen Ziziphi spinosae and Radix Polygalae and related mechanisms through experiments and metabolomics approach. BMC complementary medicine and therapies20(1), 206. (Source)

[xiv] Cao, Q., Jiang, Y., Cui, S. Y., Tu, P. F., Chen, Y. M., Ma, X. L., Cui, X. Y., Huang, Y. L., Ding, H., Song, J. Z., Yu, B., Sheng, Z. F., Wang, Z. J., Xu, Y. P., Yang, G., Ye, H., Hu, X., & Zhang, Y. H. (2016). Tenuifolin, a saponin derived from Radix Polygalae, exhibits sleep-enhancing effects in mice. Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology23(14), 1797–1805. (Source)

[xv] Shin, K. Y., Lee, J. Y., Won, B. Y., Jung, H. Y., Chang, K. A., Koppula, S., & Suh, Y. H. (2009). BT-11 is effective for enhancing cognitive functions in the elderly humans. Neuroscience letters465(2), 157–159 (Source)

[xvi] Park, C. H., Yang, P. S., Yoon, Y. S., & Ra, J. C. (2019). Study on the safety of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow root extract powder (BT-11) in young person aged from 9 to 19 years old. Journal of ethnopharmacology232, 119–129. (Source)

[xvii] Yao, H., Cui, P., Xu, D., Liu, Y., Tian, Q., & Zhang, F. (2018). “A water-soluble polysaccharide from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia suppresses ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo”. International journal of biological macromolecules107 (Pt A), 713–718 (source)

Subscribe to the Nootropics Expert newsletter

Keep up to date with the latest developments in the nootropics space.

Head First 2nd Editon

The Award Winning Guide to Healing & Optimizing Your Brain with Nootropic Supplements.

Head First 2nd Edition

NEW! Eliminate Brain Fog, Low Energy, Moodiness, Difficulty Sleeping, Memory Loss or Anxiety. Available on Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Apple Books, Walmart and more...

Where to Buy Nootropics

Wondering where to buy nootropics? Well, you’re in the right place. Because here you will find the nootropic supplements that I personally use and recommend. Each supplement has a link to the company store and product that I use. I also include a link to my full review for each supplement here on Nootropics Expert® […]

The Definitive Guide to Nootropics

Nootropics can help increase your memory, boost learning ability, improve your mood and assist overall brain function. If you’re new to nootropics, or wonder about the difference between a nootropic and a smart drug, then this page is for you. Here you’ll find the definition of a nootropic, how to pronounce the word “nootropic”, the […]

The Most Comprehensive Nootropics List

This is our big list of the most popular Nootropics in use today. Here you’ll learn what each nootropic is, what it does and suggested dosages. What is this List of Nootropics About? Nootropic supplements are cognitive enhancers aiming to improve brain function. Whether you are looking to treat mild cognitive impairment, improve mental focus, or biohack […]

Free Secrets of the Brain 3rd Edition

Get “Secrets of the Optimized Brain,” 92 nootropics to help you plan your Nootropic Stack when you sign up for my newsletter:

Join The Discussion - 18 comments

July 2, 2023

Hi David wich one I should considere to stop obsessive thoughts and increase sleep ? saffron? polygala? or Kanna?

    David Tomen
    July 2, 2023

    Andrea, Saffron has been shown to help reduce OCD as has Lemon Balm. The latter is one of the supplements I include in my sleep stack.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.