PQQ nootropic dosage


David Tomen
David Tomen
13 minute read
PQQ helps create new mitochondria in brain cells, is a very potent antioxidant, stimulates Nerve Growth Factor, and boosts energy, cognition, memory and learning

PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone or methoxatin) is a very potent antioxidant and plays a significant role in cognition and memory.

PQQ is the first nutrient discovered that promotes the growth of new mitochondria (mitochondriogenesis) in your cells. Brain cells have a higher concentration of these little cellular power plants than most other cells in your body.[i]

You can have anywhere from two to several thousand mitochondria in each brain cell. They even have their own DNA. When you increase the number of mitochondria, you have more cellular energy to power through your day.

PQQ was only discovered recently. But it’s been around for a very long time. So don’t roll your eyes when some New Ager claims that we’re made of stardust. PQQ was discovered aboard NASA’s spaceship “STARDUST” in interstellar dust particles.[ii]PQQ-nootropic-stardust

PQQ plays a role in neurogenesis by helping to form the growth of new neurons through the stimulation of nerve growth factor (NGF).

PQQ protects against oxidative damage by shielding against cellular death and damage to DNA. It reduces inflammation in your brain. And it shields your brain from glutamate-induced toxicity preventing apoptosis (cell death).

PQQ is able to save and revive brain cells damaged from beta amyloid proteins associated with Alzheimer’s Disease. And prevents the formation of alpha-synuclein proteins that cause Parkinson’s Disease.

So give yourself an unfair advantage and add PQQ to your nootropic stack. Boost your brain power. And improve your energy, cognition, memory, and recall.

PQQ helps:

  • Mitochondria. PQQ can increase the number of mitochondria in your brain cells. Mitochondria have their own DNA, and if you supply this super-nutrient, they start multiplying in each of your brain cells. It helps stop and reverse cell death. And increases cognitive function and efficiency.
  • Neuroprotectant. PQQ helps clean up free radicals and oxidative stress damage in brain tissue. You proactively prevent mitochondria death and keep brain cells healthy.
  • Nerve Growth Factor. PQQ stimulates production of nerve growth factor (NGF) which helps the growth of new neurons. And the branching of neurons. Improving memory and repairing damage caused by strokes.


PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) was first recognized as an enzyme cofactor in bacteria by Norwegian biochemist Jens Hauge in 1964.[iii] It wasn’t until 2003 that Japanese brain researcher Tadafumi Kato found that PQQ also occurs in rodents and other mammals, including humans.

PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone)
PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone)

As an enzyme cofactor, PQQ is critical to the life of your brain cells. And some would say it’s even critical to life itself. “Cofactors” are molecules that act as a helper for enzymes that need assistance to work properly.

Recent studies verify the unique ability of PQQ to stimulate the creation of new mitochondria.[iv] And to improve the function of your existing mitochondria. But why would you want to hack your mitochondria?

It is an understatement to overstate the dramatic impact this has not only in your brain. But in your entire body. Mitochondria’s role is to convert the food we eat into energy that powers cells to perform at peak function.

This process of mitochondriogenesis stops and reverses brain cell death, and brain degeneration. PQQ is the only nutrient that can do this. And more energy in your brain cells means quicker thinking, better memory, amped-up alertness, less mental fatigue and more.

PQQ stimulates the growth of new neurons through the promotion of nerve growth factor (NGF) in brain cells. Resulting in improved memory, cognition and learning.[v]

PQQ is also a potent antioxidant mopping up free radicals that would otherwise damage brain cells.

PQQ is used in every cell in your body. And is particularly useful in brain cells. It’s about as close you can get to a vitamin without ‘officially’ being declared a vitamin.

You get PQQ from some of the food you eat including beans, celery, cocoa, fermented foods (i.e. tempeh, natto), kiwi, papaya, parsley, potatoes, spinach and wine. Babies get it from breast milk.


How does PQQ work in the brain?

PQQ boosts brain health in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

  1. PQQ promotes the growth of new mitochondria. This is the only known nutrient that can perform this function.

Mitochondria are the source of life and death for neurons. They generate your neuron’s energy and control its death. But mitochondria tend to develop defects as we age.

As these defects accumulate, mitochondria start to malfunction. This results in a reduction in cellular energy production. And cells die.

The result of this dysfunction can be brain fog, cognition problems, poor memory and recall. And ultimately neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, stroke and others.

Studies show that PQQ protects against this cellular damage by repairing and helping to create new mitochondria. Studies with mice and rats, and eliminating PQQ from their diet have shown reduced mitochondria.

To demonstrate how this process works, scientists added PQQ to mouse cells in the lab. And they showed that PQQ activated the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha). This pathway is known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis.[vi]

  1. PQQ helps grow new neurons. This unique nutrient promotes the production of nerve growth factor (NGF). Assisting in brain cell repair, maintenance, and regeneration. Including many of the cells that are crucial for cognition, memory and learning.

NGF is especially important for maintaining neuroplasticity. This process is how brain cells form connections to communicate with each other. And is how we learn new stuff and then record it to memory.

By stimulating the production of NGF, PQQ has been found to protect memory and cognition in both animals and humans.

In one study, scientists demonstrated PQQ’s ability to promote the healing of injured nerves. The team used 90 healthy White Wistar rats, and divided them into 3 groups. The rats had injured (purposely) sciatic nerves. And were treated with Vitamin E, PQQ or combination of both.

The scientists found that 12 weeks after surgery and the introduction of PQQ to the wound, the nerves grew back! They concluded that the combination of Vitamin E with PQQ promoted nerve regeneration.[vii]

Another way that PQQ influences new neuron development is by protecting neuron stem and progenitor cells from glutamate toxicity (oxidative damage). This allows neurons to survive and potentially form new brain cells.[viii]

How things go bad

As we get older, the chemistry in our brain cells and energy metabolism changes.PQQ boosts mood

↓ Neurons degenerate

↓ Recall, reaction time, memory, and mood diminish

Neurotransmitter levels decline

All of these age-related changes are contributing factors to the neurodegenerative diseases of aging, including Alzheimer’s and dementia.

But even if things haven’t degenerated to such a debilitating level, PQQ can help.

PQQ benefits

Research from hundreds of studies have shown that PQQ will:

  • Boost energy levels and stamina
  • Reduce fatigue
  • Improve sleep
  • Reduce the possibility of age-related diseases
  • Improve cognition, memory, learning and recall
  • Repair damage caused by strokes
  • Protects against Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
  • Lowers LDL (bad) cholesterol[ix]

PQQ is an extremely powerful antioxidant. For example, PQQ is able to carry out 20,000 catalytic conversions, compared only 4 for Vitamin C.[x]

The studies in Parkinson’s Disease prevention and PQQ are particularly interesting. And applicable to neurohackers of any age.

We are exposed to pesticides in most of the fruit and vegetables we pick up at the supermarket. And who knows what kind of brain damage we subject ourselves to every day just from the food we eat.

In the lab, animals (rats and mice) have a pesticide injected directly into their brain to induce Parkinson’s-like symptoms. In one study, PQQ not only showed a protective effect against pesticide caused brain damage. It actually preserved brain mitochondria near control levels. [xi]

The message here is buy organic food, or supplement with PQQ. And you may be able to avoid getting Parkinson’s Disease later in life.

PQQ improves memory

How does PQQ feel?

Mitochondria biogenesis means that your body is creating new mitochondria. PQQ increases the number of mitochondria in your brain cells. And throughout your body where energy demands are high.

Increasing your body’s mitochondria is one of the anti-aging ‘holy grails’. Boosting these tiny cellular energy power plants can prevent further damage. It can add overall energy to daily life. And maybe even slow down the aging process.

Neurohackers report dramatic improvements in mental and physical energy when adding PQQ to their nootropic stack. And I recommend adding CoQ10 for the synergistic effect.

PQQ has a cumulative effect and benefits should continue to improve over continued usage. For some the effects are immediate. For others it could take 2 or 3 months of dosing PQQ every day or every 2nd day.

PQQ is particularly effective if you’ve suffered mitochondrial damage from using statins.

Memory improves and you’ll be able to think things through more easily. Alertness gets a boost. And better vision and less eyestrain if you’re working on a computer, or staring at a screen all day.

Blood pressure readings could normalize. And you’ll feel refreshed and well-rested when waking up.

If you are dealing with Fibromyalgia you may get some benefit from PQQ with alleviating your chronic pain.

PQQ improves cognition and is anti-aging

PQQ Clinical Research

 PQQ Improves Mood

This study in Japan investigates the effectiveness of supplemental PQQ on stress, fatigue, quality of life and sleep. 17 adult male and female subjects took 20 mg of PQQ daily for 8 weeks.

Changes in stress, fatigue, quality of life measures and sleep were evaluated. The study showed that vigor, fatigue, tension-anxiety, depression, anger-hostility and confusion improved following administration of PQQ.

Measures for quality of life, appetite, sleep, obsession and pain also improved significantly. The volunteers also showed significant improvement in sleepiness at awakening, sleep onset and maintenance, and sleep duration.

The researchers concluded that supplementing with PQQ improved sleep quality and duration, mood improved due to less fatigue, and appetite, pain and obsession all showed improvement. And that PQQ is a “useful dietary supplement”.[xii]

PQQ Improves Cognition

PQQ is effective on its own in improving brain function. But when it is combined with CoQ10 the results are even more astounding. This synergy was first observed in animal studies. And was further demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Japan.

71 middle-aged and elderly volunteers age 40 – 70 were supplemented with 20 mg per day of PQQ. The result was an improvement on tests of higher cognitive function compared to placebo.

Then the research team gave the volunteers 20 mg of PQQ along with 300 mg of CoQ10. And the results in improved cognitive function were even more dramatic. PQQ and CoQ10 are both involved in mitochondrial function. So these results did not come as a big surprise.[xiii]

PQQ Boosts Memory

Many older adults experience problems with memory and other cognitive functions. And these issues seem to be happening to younger and younger people. As neurohackers, we always ask the question, “Are these declines inevitable?” And to that we say a profound, “No”!

In this Japanese double-blind, placebo-controlled trial 65 adults aged 50 – 70 years with forgetfulness were recruited. The volunteers were given 20 mg of PQQ and 100 mg of CoQ10 per day for 24 weeks.

The research team found that PQQ taken either alone, or in combination with CoQ10 has the potential to prevent, or even reverse, the decline in cognitive function caused by aging and oxidative stress.

The team concluded “PQQ was found to improve not only immediate memory, but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness. The effects of PQQ were enhanced when the substance was used with CoQ10.”[xiv]

PQQ Recommended Dosage

PQQ nootropic dosageYou get PQQ from some of the food you eat including beans, celery, cocoa, fermented foods (i.e. tempeh, natto), kiwi, papaya, parsley, potatoes, spinach and wine. Babies get it from breast milk.

Estimated daily intake of PQQ is 100 – 400 mcg. But it’s unlikely you’re getting enough PQQ from diet alone. And supplementation of this mitochondria generator could help.

Clinical studies with humans and animals tell us that 20 mg of PQQ daily is needed to experience cognitive benefit.

PQQ Side Effects

The primary “side effect” of using PQQ in your nootropic stack is – you’ll feel better. You should have more energy and thinking should be clearer and faster.

PQQ is non-toxic and supplementation is well-tolerated by most people.

Type of PQQ to buy

PQQ comes in tablet or capsule form 10 mg, 20 mg and 30 mg.

But you need to be aware of different forms of PQQ in the marketplace.

There is only 1 form available that is produced naturally. And that is BioPQQ® by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company of Japan. This company makes PQQ through bacterial fermentation. BioPQQ is licensed to several supplement makers.

You can get 10 mg BioPQQ® in the new Performance Lab® Energy formula that also contains Coenzyme Q10 100 mg (MicroActive® Q10),  Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) 750 mg, R-Lipoic Acid 150 mg (Bio-Enhanced® Na-RALA), and Piperine 2.5 mg (BioPerine®). A great way to boost your physical and mental energy without resorting to stimulants or caffeine.

Other forms of PQQ are produced through a chemical synthesis, involving the use of fairly toxic compounds, and have unresolved safety issues.

Nootropics Expert® Recommendation

PQQ 10 – 20 mg per day

Nootropics Expert Tested and ApprovedI recommend using PQQ as a nootropic supplement.

Your body does not make PQQ on its own. You can get some PQQ from the food you eat. But studies have shown we may not get an adequate supply of PQQ from food sources in our diet.

PQQ helps create mitochondria in your brain cells. When cellular energy gets a boost, you can experience better and faster thinking, learning is easier, recall is faster, and you’ll be more resistant to fatigue.

PQQ is especially helpful for those suffering from age-related cognitive decline. Studies show it helps stop or reverse brain degeneration with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Especially in the early stages of the disease.

I suggest starting with a dose of 10 – 20 mg daily. And PQQ is a great compliment to a stack including any nootropic. It works particularly well when combined with CoQ10.

My favorite nootropic stack for boosting physical and mental energy is the new Performance Lab® Energy formula that uses the patented, natural BioPQQ® combined with Acetyl-L-CarnitineR-Lipoic Acid, and BioPerine .

You need to provide your brain cells with fresh mitochondria and supply neurons with the fuel it is demanding. Or neurons start to break down from the inside. Signs that your lacking adequate PQQ is brain fog, slow thinking, headaches and muscle aches.

Age-related cognitive disorders that include muscle control problems may want to up the dose to 30 mg per day. But for a limited time until PQQ blood levels are stabilized. Work with your doctor.

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Rucker R., Chowanadisai W., Nakano M. “Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone.” Alternative Medicine Revue. 2009 Sep;14(3):268-77. (source)

[ii] Krueger F.R., Werther W., Kissel J., Schmid E.R. “Assignment of quinone derivatives as the main compound class composing ‘interstellar’ grains based on both polarity ions detected by the ‘Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyser’ (CIDA) onboard the spacecraft STARDUST.” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2004;18(1):103-11. (source)

[iii] HAUGE J.G. “GLUCOSE DEHYDROGENASE OF BACTERIUM ANITRATUM: AN ENZYME WITH A NOVEL PROSTHETIC GROUP.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1964 Nov;239:3630-9. (source)

[iv] Kuo Y.T., Shih P.H., Kao S.H., Yeh G.C., Lee H.M. “Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Resists Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Activating PGC-1α and Integrating Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complexes.” PLoS One. 2015 Dec 8;10(12):e0143600. (source)

[v] Terry A.V. Jr., Kutiyanawalla A., Pillai A. “Age-dependent alterations in nerve growth factor (NGF)-related proteins, sortilin, and learning and memory in rats.” Physiology and Behavior. 2011 Feb 1;102(2):149-57. (source)

[vi] Chowanadisai W., Bauerly K.A., Tchaparian E., Wong A., Cortopassi G.A., Rucker R.B. “Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression.” Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52 (source)

[vii] Azizi A., Azizi S., Heshmatian B., Amini K. “Improvement of functional recovery of transected peripheral nerve by means of chitosan grafts filled with vitamin E, pyrroloquinoline quinone and their combination.” International Journal of Surgery. 2014;12(5):76-82. (source)

[viii] Guan S., Xu J., Guo Y., Ge D., Liu T., Ma X., Cui Z. “Pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neural stem and progenitor cells.” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 2015 May;42:37-45. (source)

[ix] Nakano M., Kawasaki Y., Suzuki N., Takara T. “Effects of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt Intake on the Serum Cholesterol Levels of Healthy Japanese Adults.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo). 2015;61(3):233-40 (source)

[x] Paz M.A., Martin P., Flückiger R., Mah J., Gallop P.M. “The catalysis of redox cycling by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), PQQ derivatives, and isomers and the specificity of inhibitors”. Anals of Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 1; 238(2):145-9. 1 (source)

[xi] Qin J., Wu M., Yu S1, Gao X., Zhang J., Dong X., Ji J., Zhang Y., Zhou L., Zhang Q., Ding F. “Pyrroloquinoline quinone-conferred neuroprotection in rotenone models of Parkinson’s disease.” Toxicology Letters. 2015 Nov 4;238(3):70-82 (source)

[xii] Nakano M., Yamamoto T., Okamura H., Tsuda A., Kowatari Y., “Effects of Oral Supplementation with Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on Stress, Fatigue, and Sleep” Functional Foods in Health and Disease2012, 2(8):307-324 (source)

[xiii] Nakano M, Ubukata K, Yamamoto T, Yamaguchi H. “Effect of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on mental status of middle-aged and elderly persons.” Food Style. 2009;13(7):50-53. (Source)

[xiv] Nakano M., Kawasaki Y., Suzuki N., Takara Y. ““PQQ was found to improve not only immediate memory, but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness. The effects of PQQ were enhanced when the substance was used with CoQ10.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 61, 233-240, 2015 (source)

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Join The Discussion - 95 comments

July 25, 2022

Doses of up to 5 mg per day can be given to children with cerebral palsy to increase energy during therapy?

    David Tomen
    July 26, 2022

    Andrew, are you asking a question or telling us about your own experience using PQQ?

June 15, 2022

So, are all pqq supplements that are bio pqq good to use? I use doctor’s best and have had great results. I am now taking co q 10 as well. 20 mg.
I love your videos and all the information you publish. Thank you so much for all the time and effort you put into making this available to us all.

    David Tomen
    June 16, 2022

    Angela, BioPQQ is a patented form of PQQ. And you can usually count on a manufacturer who uses patented ingredients because they pay a licensing fee for the use of that agreement which costs more.

    The thing to watch out for is “other ingredients“. Do your best to avoid supplements containing things like magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide, silica, etc. Because they are toxic and do nothing to assist your health and wellbeing.

      August 2, 2022

      Thank you. Wow! I had no clue. I have seen supplements that contain silica. Going to check all my supplements now. Again, thank you so much.

      August 2, 2022

      Wow! I just looked and several of my supplements contain at least one of the “bad” ingredients. Is vegetable magnesium stearate bad? I guess they include “vegetable” to make it sound good.

        David Tomen
        August 2, 2022

        Angela, some will argue that magnesium stearate is safe to use. I take issue with that. But find it’s not even worth arguing about because there are supplements available now which are pure. And do not contain ANY “other ingredients” except the capsule.

        You may be OK with one supplement containing this toxic ingredient. But when ALL of the supplements you are using there is no way someone can convince me that it’s safe. The thing is magnesium stearate suppresses your natural killer T-cells which are a key component of your immune system.

May 13, 2022

Hi David

I read from other website, Resveratrol from wine, Hydroxytyrosol from olive oil and Quercetin also able to initiate mitochondrial production, is it true?

    David Tomen
    May 15, 2022

    Jason, it’s true and I should update my Resveratrol and Quercetin reviews to reflect this.

      May 16, 2022

      I see, does it mean Quercetin can be an alternative to PQQ? PQQ is a lot more expensive than quercetin

        David Tomen
        May 16, 2022

        Jason, it depends on what you are using these supplements for. Quercetin is great for clearing your lungs and nasal passages and has been used for COVID-19. PQQ has not.

        May 22, 2022

        Hi David, this is my third day taking BioPQQ 20mg. It does gives me focus and stamina, better than CDP Choline. Quercetin can’t give me this kind of energy boost. Im glad I brought it. To me PQQ effect is similar to Clenbuterol. But for some reason it makes me a little depressed and anger. Hopefully the mood issue would disappear in a week or two.

        David Tomen
        May 22, 2022

        Jason, not sure why it would cause that effect. Is there anything else in that supplement other than BioPQQ? Any “other ingredients”?

April 1, 2022

Hi David

Do we need to cycle PQQ to prevent tolerance build up ?

    David Tomen
    April 1, 2022

    Jason, no you do not.

      April 2, 2022

      Ok noted, I read PQQ deplete glutathione, is it true?

        David Tomen
        April 3, 2022

        Jason, the tests you are referring to where done in a petri dish with cancer cells. Which PQQ helped to kill.

February 5, 2022

Hi David,

I’m taking PQQ along with CoQ10. Is it important to take it everyday continuously to best feel the effects in a long term fashion, or is it better to cycle it: take it 5 week days and rest in the weekends?
Thank you

    David Tomen
    February 7, 2022

    Jon, you need these supplements daily to get their benefit every day. There is no need to cycle them. But follow dosage recommendations.

September 5, 2021

Hoping you can answer a couple of questions on PQQ I can’t find the answers to anywhere else. A little background: I have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia, a circadian rhythm disorder, and hypersomnia and strongly suspect I have CFS as well, so my interest is a little different than most of your readers. While I experience some extreme pain, it’s the fatigue that’s overwhelming. At the same time I have several polymorphisms that affect how I process meds; most notably I overreact to sedatives and have little reaction to virtually all stimulants. As traditional pharmaceuticals offer little relief, I’m experimenting with supplements. Note I do take 50mg Mydayis (dextramethanphetamine) the only med that does anything at all. It has a different release process than others, but it only keeps me awake; it does little for the physical fatigue. My theory is that physical fatigue has a different mechanism than mental fatigue.

I’ve found some improvement with 400mg CoQ10, 1000mg Tyrosine, (morning), 500mg Alcar (2-3x daily), and 400-600mg L Theanine (night). I based my choices on the scientific studies that seemed more reliable and related specifically to my conditions or at least their symptoms. Finding those is no small task as the majority conducted today use very small samples, are prone to bias, and are not followed up on using the same conditions (a requirement for a result to be accepted as valid).

PQQ has few studies, but more and more are being conducted.I found the results and the conversation around this particular supplement intriguing enough to try. What I can’t find is WHEN to take it, morning or night, and it’s difficult to extrapolate because it’s connected to both increasing energy and improving sleep. I’ve also found little on whether to take it with or without food, though I did find a few that said empty stomach. I don’t know why those parts of the dosage are never incl in the studies published. Additionally, there is little info on how it interacts with other substances, other than it may complement CoQ10 and should not be taken by those with diabetes or heart disease. This surprises me because, though few studies have been conducted, there is enough info on its chemical makeup and bio targets that, while too dense for me, should be enough for experts to figure out. Any additional info you can provide is greatly appreciated. Thank you for your time.

    David Tomen
    September 7, 2021

    Cheryl, read the last 3 – 4 paragraphs in the section above “How does PQQ feel?”.

    PQQ is water soluble to you can take it anytime. It does not need to be taken with a meal or fat to be absorbed. All you need is 10 – 20 mg per day but you may find its effectiveness builds over time. And you’ll get the most benefit in a month or two of daily dosing. PQQ is a great compliment to the CoQ10 in your supplement stack as well.

    November 5, 2021

    Hello, what is your blood pressure? I might know what’s happening to you and there is simple solution to repair it. Peace

L S Dean
August 19, 2021

Thank you for all of your work, I appreciate the information. Dave Asprey claims that PQQ in the disodium salt form is often degraded by stomach acid reducing bioavailability and absorption.
I followed your last 2 references to Japanese studies and BioPQQ® is disodium salt made by the Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company of Japan. Could the company have funded the research? I am not an Asprey fan, just trying to work out which supplement to buy.
Best wishes, Linda UK.

    David Tomen
    August 20, 2021

    Linda, not sure I understand your question. BioPQQ is manufactured by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company of Japan. And they license their patented form of PQQ to other supplement manufacturers.

    At least one of the studies I referenced in this review was financed by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company. And those types of clinical studies always demand extra scrutiny because you don’t know if the authors of the study were biased or not.

David S
June 30, 2021

So the one type of PQQ that you are promoting is fine, but all the others use ‘toxic’ compounds. Why would they use toxic compounds when they can just extract it from bacteria or yeast, it’s not a difficult process so it makes no sense?

    David Tomen
    June 30, 2021

    David, I’m not ‘promoting’ one type of PQQ but am ‘recommending’ it because it is the best of this type of supplement available today.

    Cheaper supplements are less expensive to manufacturer and provide a larger profit margin for the company. It is why I recommend Performance Lab and Mind Lab Pro because they only use patented ingredients where they can. And refuse to back down from quality.

    They may make less selling supplements than the other guys because they must charge a premium for the ingredients they use. But their supplements work and work consistently.

    It’s like the old saying, “you get what you pay for”. There is no substitute for quality if you are looking for something that works.

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