racetam side effects

The Top 7 Racetams – Which One is Best?

David Tomen
Author:
David Tomen
Robert Iafelice, MS, RDN, LDN
Fact Checked:
Robert Iafelice, MS, RDN, LDN
11 minute read

Key Takeaways

  1. Dr. Corneliu Giurgea created the first racetam nootropic, Piracetam, discovering that it boosts cognitive abilities even in healthy people.

  2. All racetams are synthetic compounds, sharing a similar chemical structure, and are used for various neurocognitive disorders.

  3. Every racetam affects acetylcholine levels in your brain and needs to be taken with a quality choline supplement like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline.

  4. The seven most popular racetams are Piracetam, Aniracetam, Coluracetam, Nefiracetam, Oxiracetam, Phenylpiracetam, and Pramiracetam, each having specific benefits such as improved cognitive function, reduced anxiety, memory enhancement, increased blood flow, etc.

  5. Each racetam has unique mechanisms of action, providing different benefits, hence, choosing the best one depends on your individual needs and requirements.


The very first racetam nootropic was created by Dr. Corneliu Giurgea at the Belgian-based pharmaceutical company UCB Pharma in the 1964.

Dr. Giurgea’s intention was to develop a calming-type drug for motion sickness. GABA is the calming neurotransmitter and Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA.

But in spite of its connection with GABA, Piracetam didn’t show any behavior associated with this calming neurotransmitter. And cannot directly affect GABA receptors.

Instead, Dr. Giurgea discovered that Piracetam was able to boost cognitive abilities even in healthy people. The company launched this new ‘drug’ as ‘Nootropil’ in Europe in the early 1970’s.

How do racetams work?

Dozens of racetam derivatives have since been developed based on the original Piracetam. All synthetic compounds, racetams share a pyrrolidone nucleus at their chemical structure core.

Several of these racetams are now sold as prescription drugs in countries around the world. And are prescribed for dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke recovery, ADHD, epilepsy and other neurocognitive disorders.

In the USA, racetams are available OTC without a prescription. But oddly enough are not classified as “dietary supplements”. Instead, the racetams described below are offered for “research” purposes only.

If you are new to the world of nootropics, and would like to try one of the racetams, but are not sure which one to choose, this post may help.

Below is a brief description of the 7 most popular racetams in use today. You don’t need to be a “nootropics expert” to use any of these compounds. But you need to know how to use them.

Each racetam has a live link through to a full review of that nootropic. Including what it is, where it came from, what it’s used for, how it works in your brain, clinical studies, dosage recommendations, side effects and where to buy them.

NOTE: Each of the racetams in this post affect acetylcholine levels in your brain. And must be taken with a quality choline supplement; Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline.

These racetams will not work if used without a choline supplement. And will likely produce a racetam-headache. More on dosage recommendations at the end of this post.

how to find the best nootropic racetams

Top 7 Racetam Nootropics

Piracetam for Cognitive function

Piracetam is considered the first true nootropic ever developed. It was synthesized by Dr. Corneliu Giurgea at UCB Pharma in 1964.

Since Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of the calming neurotransmitter GABA, Dr. Giurgea intended this first nootropic to be a calming type of drug for motion sickness. Turns out that’s not what happened.

Instead, Dr. Giurgea found that Piracetam as able to boost cognition and overall brain health even in healthy people.

Piracetam modulates AMPA and NMDA receptors in the brain which increases the effectiveness of glutamate. It improves the flow of acetylcholine (ACh) and sensitivity and density of ACh receptors.[i] And increases cerebral blood flow.

Many people new to nootropics start with Piracetam because it’s safe and has decades of clinical studies supporting its use. But many are often disappointed with Piracetam after trying it a couple of times.

Piracetam didn’t work for them because they don’t know how to use it.

It takes 2 – 3 weeks of consistent daily use of Piracetam before you notice the benefits. To counter this, experienced neurohackers suggest starting with an ‘attack dose’ of 3,000 mg of Piracetam 3-times per day for the first 3 days.

But once you start noticing the benefits of Piracetam, you should be in a better mood, less social anxiety, heightened creativity, improved verbal fluency and eventually you’ll notice your memory is better.

Recommended dosage of Piracetam is 1,600 mg 3-times per day.

I recommend: Cosmic Nootropic – Piracetam

Aniracetam to Reduce Anxiety Symptoms

Aniracetam is my favorite racetam. It’s a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic developed at F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG in the 1978. Aniracetam boosts brain cell signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate which helps focus and concentration for improved cognitive performance.

Aniracetam affects the brain’s cholinergic system which helps release 200 – 300% more acetylcholine in your brain which helps with focus, clarity of thought, memory and recall. And it seems to affect dopamine and serotonin receptors in your brain as well.

Aniracetam distinguishes itself from the rest of the racetams by acting as an effective anxiolytic. Many who use this nootropic find that it helps reduce anxiety, depression and fear.

Some biohackers claim that Aniracetam is great for boosting creativity as it enhances productivity in the right brain hemisphere.

Recommended dosage of Aniracetam is 750 mg twice per day.

I recommend: Smart Nutrition – Aniracetam

Coluracetam for Memory Enhancement

Coluracetam is a fat-soluble racetam nootropic created by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma of Japan in 2005. It boosts your brain’s ability to convert choline to acetylcholine (ACh) through the high affinity choline uptake (HACU) process. Leading to better learning and memory.[ii]

And Coluracetam increases the effectiveness of glutamate in your brain resulting in better focus and concentration, and other forms of cognitive enhancement such as preventing memory loss.

Neurohackers use Coluracetam for the cognitive effects mentioned above. But prefer this racetam because it also enhances sound and color.

Recommended dosage of Coluracetam is 20 – 80 mg per day.

Higher dosages should be split into two smaller doses. One dose first thing in the morning and then again at noon.

what are the side effects of the drug racetam

Nefiracetam for Improved Memory Formation

Nefiracetam is a fat-soluble racetam nootropic developed by Daiichi Seiyaku in the 1990’s as a treatment for cerebrovascular disorders.

Nefiracetam potentiates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Boosting the release of GABA and glutamate. Producing a calming effect while improving neuroplasticity and boosting learning and memory, while preventing symptoms of cognitive decline.

Nefiracetam enhances signaling of GABA on GABAa receptors when GABA is too low. And has a suppressive effect when GABA is too high. Leading to stabilized mood and sociability. No mood swings!

One American study with 159 stroke patients found that 600 – 900 mg of Nefiracetam daily for 12 weeks produced a significant improvement in mood in the most severely depressed patients.[iii]

Nefiracetam also prolongs the opening of calcium channels. Keeping neurotransmitters active longer. Improving memory formation and long-term memory and recall.

Students report this is the best racetam for studying because when using Nefiracetam they have better attention span, motivation, and less apathy and mental fatigue.

Many users report cognitive benefits such as calm focus and being able to articulate thoughts, and improved speaking ability when using Nefiracetam.

And one of the coolest benefits are the visual effects when using Nefiracetam. It feels like your brain is processing a broader spectrum of what’s in your visual range. Nature and your surroundings look more vibrant and beautiful.

Recommended dosage of Nefiracetam is up to 900 mg per day.

Use smaller dosages like 400 mg once in the morning and another dose at noon.

Oxiracetam to Eliminate Brain Fog

Oxiracetam was the 3rd racetam nootropic and developed in 1977. It enhances choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT) in your brain which makes more acetylcholine. Leading to improved short-term and long-term memory. And eliminating brain fog.

Is Oxiracetam good for memory?Oxiracetam also increases the density of binding sites for neurotransmitters on AMPA receptors. Resulting in a stimulant-effect without any of the negative side effects associated with stimulants.[iv]

People who use Oxiracetam report that it

Oxiracetam report that it has profound effects in clearing brain fog and enhancing focus and motivation. Especially when learning new material or working through a tedious task.

And you should experience a significant improvement in recall. Reading is easier by giving you the ability to get through more pages faster and retain the information for later. Great for preparing for an exam or your next board presentation.

Oxiracetam also helps improve mood.

Recommended Oxiracetam dosage is 750 – 1,500 mg per day. Divided in two equal doses. One dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon.

I recommend: Smart Nutrition – Oxiracetam

Is phenylpiracetam stronger than piracetam?

Phenylpiracetam for Increased Blood Flow

Phenylpiracetam was created by adding a phenyl group to Piracetam by Russian scientists in 1983. To boost the physical and mental performance of astronauts during space flight. It’s currently used by Russian cosmonauts on the International Space Station.

And it turns out that Phenylpiracetam is very effective in boosting athletic performance , such as increasing blood flow. It provides significant stimulatory effects and helps you resist cold. The World Anti-Doping Agency has banned Phenylpiracetam for athletes in the Olympics and other professional sports.

Phenylpiracetam increases the density of acetylcholine (ACh), NMDA, GABA and dopamine receptors in the brain. More receptors mean more binding sites for neurotransmitters that affect memory formation, cognition, sleep and mood.[v]

It increases blood flow in the brain which provides more oxygen and nutrients to brain cells boosting alertness, cognition, focus and mood.

And Phenylpiracetam helps reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression and fear without the type of side affects you get from antidepressants. Likely because it increases the density of receptors for acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and NMDA.

Phenylpiracetam also provides an ‘anti-convulsive’ action in the brain which has been shown to be an effective treatment for epilepsy and other cognitive disorders.

Many neurohackers say Phenylpiracetam is the strongest nootropic they’ve ever experienced. It’s highly bioavailable , easily passing through the blood-brain barrier, leading you to experience the effects within 30 minutes of taking it.

Recommended Phenylpiracetam dosage is 100 mg twice per day. One Phenylpiracetam dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon.

I recommend: Cosmic Nootropic – Phenylpiracetam.

Pramiracetam for Focus and Concentration

Pramiracetam was first synthesized by scientists at Parke-Davis in the late 1970’s. Pramiracetam boosts high affinity choline uptake (HACU) which has a profound effect on the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Helping cognition, memory, recall and focus.

Unlike some of the other racetams, Pramiracetam does not directly influence GABA, dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin in the brain. So is not a good choice if you’re looking to improve mood or anxiety issues.[vi]

Many neurohackers report that taking Pramiracetam quickly provides an intense increase in focus and for some even a boost in confidence.

It is reported to be great for intense, long study sessions. Or when you face logical, attention-based tasks where you need sharp focus.

Others report improved recall, fluidity of thought, and ease of verbal communication and numerical calculations.

Recommended Pramiracetam dosage is 250 – 400 mg up to 3-times per day. One dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon, and if you’re doing a 3rd dose do it later in the afternoon.

I recommend: Cosmic Nootropic – Pramiracetam.

Which racetam is most effective?

Which racetam is best for you?

Each of the above recommendations in the racetam family share a pyrrolidone nucleus core. And have some similarities like boosting acetylcholine and modulating glutamate in your brain.

But each racetam also has a unique mechanism of action providing unique benefits. All are considered non-toxic and safe to use if you follow dosage recommendations.

If you’re just starting out and want something safe, you may want to try Piracetam. But you need a lot of it to work (i.e. several grams per day).

If you are a student, you may want to try Nefiracetam, Oxiracetam, or Pramiracetam.

Pramiracetam use is also associated with improved cognitive function as a supplemental treatment for traumatic brain injuries.

Aniracetam is a very effective anxiolytic and helps relieve anxiety and depression.

If you are an astronaut or athlete you may want to try Phenylpiracetam for the reasons detailed above. But DO NOT attempt using this nootropic if you are an Olympic athlete. And check your professional sports association to see if this racetam is on their “banned” list of substances just to be on the safe side.

And Coluracetam is worth trying if you’d like to see and hear the world in more vivid colors and sound.

But as I mentioned near the beginning of this post, each racetam nootropic must be dosed with Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline. Because each racetam affects acetylcholine levels in your brain.

Each of these racetams also stack well with Mind Lab Pro® and Performance Lab® Mind because each of these preformulated stacks contain Cognizin® (CDP-Choline).

Some of the above racetams are fat-soluble. You must take them with a healthy fat. Try a tablespoon of unrefined coconut oil to ensure absorption.

And finally, many of the above racetams are only available in certain countries like the USA as a nootropic that you can easily buy online. Many are sold as prescription drugs in countries around the world. Check your local regulations to see if they are available in your country.

Several racetams I detailed above are available from Cosmic Nootropic. The company also offers a bundle if you’d like to sample several different racetams including: Noopept, Piracetam, and Phenylpiracetam. Get that bundle here: Cosmic Nootropic – Bundle

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Stoll L., Schubert T., Müller W.E. “Age-related deficits of central muscarinic cholinergic receptor function in the mouse: partial restoration by chronic piracetam treatment.” Neurobiology of Aging. 1992 Jan-Feb;13(1):39-44. (source)

[ii] Takashina K., Bessho T., Mori R., Eguchi J., Saito K. “MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer: (2) Effect on synthesis and release of acetylcholine in AF64A-treated rats.” Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna). 2008 Jul;115(7):1027-35. (source)

[iii] Robinson R.G., Jorge R.E., Clarence-Smith K. “Double-blind randomized treatment of poststroke depression using nefiracetam.” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2008 Spring;20(2):178-84. (source)

[iv] Nicoletti F., Casabona G., Genazzani A.A., Copani A., Aleppo G., Canonico P.L., Scapagnini U. “Excitatory amino acids and neuronal plasticity: modulation of AMPA receptors as a novel substrate for the action of nootropic drugs.” Functional Neurology. 1992 Sep-Oct;7(5):413-22. (source)

[v] Firstova Y.Y., Abaimov D.A., Kapitsa I.G., Voronina T.A., Kovalev G.I. “The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task” Neurochemical Journal June 2011, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 115-125 (source)

[vi] Pavlík A., Benesová O., Dlohozková N. “Effects of nootropic drugs on brain cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission.” Activitas Nervosa Superior (Praha). 1987 Mar;29(1):62-5. (source)

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Join The Discussion - 118 comments

Raymond
May 8, 2021

Dave,
For those who have low blood pressure which racetams are best? Are they all good but to different degrees in this regard? I don’t require as much choline as others. Playing with this maybe? As a side I couldn’t figure why gaba supplements were making me feel so spacey, uncomfortable, and unable to focus until I realized how it affected blood pressure.

Ray

    David Tomen
    May 8, 2021

    Ray, each of the racetams in this article has a live link to my full review of that racetam. Which also includes a “Side Effects” section which will tell you if it affects blood pressure. If it is not mentioned then it isn’t a worry.

Tom
April 6, 2021

Hi Dave,

I recently found your site and can’t thank you enough for all the great info on it. Fantastic information for individuals wanting to learn about brain optimization. I recently ordered from HR Supplements and wanted to ask about dosing and stacking.

For studying and learning complex information, what would be a good combination for Oxiracetam and Pramiracetam combined with Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline? I’m planning to start with just Oxiracetam and Choline. I will follow 4:1 ratio you suggested and will do a morning/early afternoon intake. I agree with you that splitting your dosage is vital.

Also, HR has Noopept available and I decided to buy it as well. Not sure why their pushing 30mg in one dose as that is one day’s limit. What would be a couple stack dosage variations you would suggest with Noopept, the chosen racetam, and choline?

    David Tomen
    April 6, 2021

    Tom, you’ll need to experiment with each of those racetams and see which one works best for you. Only you can judge their effects in your system.

    You can safely use 30 mg Noopept with one of your stacks. I find when I use it I’m much more productive so know it works. But 30 mg per day is the max. If they’re tablets you could split them. Or dump half the powder out of the capsule if you wanted to do it twice per day.

    And see this article on studying for other ideas: https://nootropicsexpert.com/best-nootropics-for-studying/

Rhonda Miller
April 5, 2021

Spent 3 years tapering from a 5 year valium habit, which ended Feb 2020
immediately got hit with massive exhaustion, so did some research and decided modfinil was worth a try
First few months were brilliant, but gradually my morning panic and anxiety attacks got worse and worse, so switched to Phenylpiracetam, with same results
Guessing my GABA receptors are damaged or non existant(?) so was advised to try Aniracetam next
Thoughts please about what I should consider

    David Tomen
    April 5, 2021

    Rhonda, the most recent research into these drugs are finding that the problems stem from when they have done to alter gene expression and ion channels. And not so much GABA receptors are you would expect.

    These nootropics have been compared to Valium with the benefits they provide: Holy Basil (https://nootropicsexpert.com/holy-basil-tulsi/), Valerian (https://nootropicsexpert.com/valerian/), and Forskolin (https://nootropicsexpert.com/forskolin/).

    But Forskolin is unique in that it increases cAMP. cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a protein that modulates the transcription of genes. Increases in cAMP triggers the activation of CREB. Forskolin increases cAMP which triggers the activation of CREB.

    This is a theory on my part but scroll down my Forskolin review to the research section titled “Forskolin reduces anxiety”. And if you try it let me know if my theory is correct. Because it would help a lot of people in the same situation.

    And try Aniracetam. It’s one of my favorite nootropics and works better for me than any prescription SSRI I’ve ever tried. But pay attention to the dosage recommendations including using a choline supplement each time you use it.

Elias
April 1, 2021

Dear David,

I‘m now using Pramiracetam 300mg 2x a day for a week together with alpha gpc 150mg and Cholin CDP 250mg. I‘m preparing myself for a exam in July and now experimenting with the racetams. As you wrote, I took it with coconut oil.

But all I was get, was a dizzy-like head, no focus and a wild mix of wild thoughts. Bit like brain fog.
I couldn‘t focus well and I was more restless. I also had the feeling of bad memory.

Do you have any idea why this could be? Did I something wrong?

Beside this do you have other recommendations for racetams/nootropics for clarity and good focus?
Thank you so much!
Kind regards

Elias

    David Tomen
    April 1, 2021

    Elias, most of my experience is with Aniracetam and have been using it for years. It’s one of my favorite nootropics.

    But from your reaction it is possible that the racetams are not a good choice for you. Better to use 500 mg L-Tyrosine twice a day along with 500 mg ALCAR. And either Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline but not both.

    Another option: here’s an article I wrote on best nootropics for studying that may help: https://nootropicsexpert.com/best-nootropics-for-studying/

Sarah
March 9, 2021

Hi david, just got into Nootropics recently. I wanted to ask if you have any experience in Cerebrolysin?

    David Tomen
    March 11, 2021

    Sarah, I have not done any research on Cerebrolysin. All I can tell from their website is “neuropeptides (20%) and amino acids (80%) isolated from pig brain tissue”. But I’ve not met anyone who has used it nor have seen any studies on it.

      Sarah
      March 12, 2021

      o wow oh thank you

leo
March 7, 2021

Hey David! Big fan, I’m about to buy some Mind Lab Pro and Performance labs but I was wondering, which one of these Racetams would be closest to Adderall?

    David Tomen
    March 8, 2021

    Leo, none of the racetams is even in the same realm as Adderall. Why? What are you trying to do?

      Leo
      March 8, 2021

      I’m looking for that stim affect with hyper focus

        David Tomen
        March 9, 2021

        Leo, I’ve been doing this for a while and have not come across any natural supplement that provides “hyper focus” on demand. It’s not physically possible to create this effect consistently across the board for everyone that takes a particular supplement.

        You may be able to achieve this effect through your own trial and error. For example, combining Performance Lab Stim with Phenylpiracetam. That is NOT a recipe or recommendation. Just an example of the type of things you can try.

        Leo
        March 9, 2021

        Oh ok that makes sense, thank you for responding

Shaz Van Kann
February 22, 2021

Hi David Tomen,

Thank you for this great post on the subject matter. There’s a lot of bad press on the subject matter in the google search listings, but yours is by far the most promising one i have read so far…

So just a bit about me…

I currently have sleep disorders which often leave me waking up in the morning feeling like ive been hit by a bus with severe brain fog. I can’t seem to get to bed anytime before 2-3 am and tend to sleep for approx 4-5 hours at a time, but in two sleep cycles with the help of red wine. Can’t seem to sleep without it anymore. This all previously began because of digestive disorders due to bacterial imbalances and fungi overgrowth and for which have now been treated and balanced out, however it seems to have left my circadian rythms all over place, but its the morning hit by a bus feeling and brain fog that i cant seem to shake off! It’s not always like this, but some good days and lots of bad days! The only thing that seems to wake my brain up is cold showers. I used to take Now True Focus L-Tyrosine and Phenylalanine with DMAE and it used to work great, but now it just doesn’t feel like it’s doing the same effects that it had before and maybe because i built a tolerance up for it, however even if i stop taking it and come back to it a few weeks later, the effects are minute and subtle! So now and that’s when i started looking for a better alternative

Just to let you know i have had a previous history of Thyroid problems and which are now normal, maybe with the exception of a sluggish thyroid however hormonal imbalances are nothing new to me!

I recently had my Testosterone Levels checked and they seem to be normal, but not optimal and maybe also why I am having these sleep issues?

These were my results back in October, 2020

Testosterone (Free or Unbound) are 0.2708 nmol/L
Testosterone 12.24 nmol/L
SHBG 27 nmol/L
Free Androgen Index is 45.3:1 ratio

What would you suggest would be the best course of action with the 7 racetam nooptropics?

Warm Regards

Shaz

    David Tomen
    February 23, 2021

    Shaz, it’s difficult to answer your question not knowing if you are a man or women or your age. But from the sounds of what you shared it’s unlikely that racetams are your answer.

    It sounds a lot like low thyroid hormones Free T3 and Free T4. And I can’t tell with your T-levels but suspect they are on the low end of the bell curve.

    I have found that trying to fix things with nootropics while sex and thyroid hormones are out of whack is a waste of time and money. Nothing will bring you satisfaction until you get your hormones optimized. And that usually means on the high end of the bell curve for all the main ones.

      Shaz
      February 24, 2021

      Thanks for the reply back David! That’s very perceptive of you… I wish I had found your input on this matter iages ago! I’ve recently been undergoing tests for a full thyroid panel and am awaiting the outcome and under the suspicion of an under performing Thyroid! I have also been booked for a full testosterone and hormone panel for the potential of undergoing an Hormone Replacement Therapy Program.

      In regards to supporting supplementation, what do you recommend at this current stage?

      I started taking Astaxanthin today and there was great results as it really helped me reconnect all over! I felt all my neuro receptors come alive! Even my appearance looked healthy with colour in my skin! I have also bought some Alpha GPC to stack it with! Let me know your thoughts about what I can use in the interim before I get my hormones optimised and not to feel as crap as I have been lately? Thanks

        David Tomen
        February 25, 2021

        Shaz, when you find something that works find out how and why it works and look for other nootropic supplements that are related or do similar things in your brain.

        It sounds like you had great results with Astaxanthin. We know that this supplement accumulates very quickly in mitochondria. Which is where your energy is produced. So look for other supplements that support mitochondrial function. And tame inflammation like Astaxanthin does.

        ALCAR, CoQ10, R-Lipoic Acid and PQQ work great together to help boost energy by targeting mitochondrial energy production.

        That’s how I would start figuring out what works best.

      Shaz
      February 24, 2021

      Oh FYI I am a 45 yr old Male with a previous history of Thyroid issues, but my biological age is much lower! Thanks

      Shaz
      February 27, 2021

      I’ve been experimenting with the Alpha BGC and Astaxanthin first thing in the morning and in the evening before bed, and I’ve noticed an improvement in my sleep duration from 5 to 6/7 hours and without any disturbances and also my central nervous system seems a lot calmer with less trembles throughout my body!

      I’m awaiting my full Hormone test Panel on the 9th March

      I’m wondering what else you can recommend?

      Just to let you know I also take 3-4000mg Vit C upon waking in the morning.. Then before my first meal I take the Alpha BGC 500mg, Astaxanthin 7mg, Magnesium L-Threonate 2500mg, Celtic Salt with OJ and with my evening meals I take Olive Leaf Extract that contains Copper and Zinc.

        David Tomen
        February 27, 2021

        The only thing I can think of is L-Tyrosine.

MG
January 20, 2021

Hi David, just curious to hear your opinion on Fasoracetam for treating ADHD specifically. I didn’t find any data here… Thanks!

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