Aniracetam saves baby mice


David Tomen
David Tomen
10 minute read
Aniracetam has been shown to relieve depression, boost learning & memory, improve verbal fluidity, increase music listening pleasure, and make you more social.

Aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic in the racetam-class of compounds. Aniracetam is up to 10-times more potent than the original racetam, Piracetam.

Aniracetam was patented by Swiss-based pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG in the 1978. It is similar in structure to Piracetam. Aniracetam, like all racetam nootropics, has a pyrrolidone nucleus at its core.

Aniracetam is sold as a prescription drug (Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, Sarpul) in Europe. And as a supplement in the United States.

A favorite racetam among the nootropics community. Neurohackers use Aniracetam to boost memory and learning. And to relieve anxiety, depression, stress, and improve sociability.[i]

Aniracetam helps:

  • Brain Optimization: Aniracetam significantly improves brain function after traumatic brain injury including stroke (ischemia).[ii] And enhances your brain’s ability to repair damaged cell membranes.
  • Neurotransmitters: Aniracetam reduces the desensitization of glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain. Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.[iii]
  • Brain Energy: Aniracetam improves memory and recall. It releases 200 – 300% more acetylcholine in the brain. Which can increase focus, and clarity of thought.[iv]



Aniracetam is in the racetam-family of nootropic compounds. It is a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic. AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic) refers to one of three glutamate receptors in your brain.[v]

The racetam-class of nootropics have a pyrrolidone nucleus at their core. And Aniracetam is a Cholinergic compound, meaning it affects acetylcholine levels in the brain.

Aniracetam is sold as a prescription drug in Europe and some of Asia under the names Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, and Sarpul. It is sold as an over-the-counter, unrestricted compound in the United States. But not as a dietary supplement.

One of the original synthetic nootropic compounds, it is known as a cognitive enhancer. And is known for its anxiolytic, or anti-anxiety effects.

Aniracetam is considered to be up to 10-times more potent than Piracetam. As an ampakine nootropic, it helps increase attention span, alertness and boosts memory.

Ampakines tend to have a stimulant effect. But do not produce the same stimulant side effects as Ritalin or coffee from prolonged use.

Reach your potential with Aniracetam

Aniracetam vs. Piracetam: What’s the Difference?

Swiss-based pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG developed Aniracetam in the late 1970’s as a derivative of Piracetam.

Aniracetam is fat-soluble while Piracetam is water-soluble. Fat-soluble molecules cross the blood-brain barrier more easily than water-soluble molecules.

Aniracetam works faster in the brain after taking it than Piracetam because of its superior bioavailability to the brain. But its effects don’t last as long as Piracetam.

Aniracetam vs. Piracetam - counter-intuitiveThe potency of Aniracetam seems almost counter-intuitive. Because most of an Aniracetam dose is lost in the liver during digestion. Only 0.2% or the original dose is available to the brain.[vi] Piracetam is nearly 100% bioavailable.[vii]

Both Aniracetam and Piracetam are cognitive enhancers. And both have neuroprotective qualities. Both racetams are able to improve learning and memory. And both are able to repair brain damage.

Aniracetam has additional benefits not shared with Piracetam. Aniracetam can reduce anxiety, depression and fear. And increase sociability.[viii] This may indicate its effects on dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain.

How does Aniracetam Work in the Brain?

Aniracetam boosts brain health and function in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

  1. Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors in the brain. The main metabolite of Aniracetam (70-80%) is N-anisoyl-GABA and is responsible for many of its effects.

2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisilic acid are additional metabolites of the drug (20-30%), both of which are also active.[ix]

The main function of these metabolites is on the glutamate system in the brain. It reduces the desensitization of glutamate receptors. This causes the neurotransmitter glutamate to become more available in the brain.

More glutamate means better cognition and memory. And neural protection and repair due to brain injury.

  1. Aniracetam also seems to affect dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain. Leading to improved mood and sociability.

One study published in the European Journal of Pharmacology demonstrated the anti-anxiety effects of Aniracetam. Researchers tracked the brain pathways in mice showing Aniracetam’s mechanism of action.[x] Illustrating the effect on dopamine and serotonin.

Aniracetam boosts dopamine and serotonin

How things go bad

Glutamate is an excitatory relative of GABA. While GABA has a calming effect, glutamate stimulates. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

But glutamate is actually toxic to neurons. And too much of it in your brain can kill brain cells. Lou Gehrig’s Disease for example, is caused by excess glutamate.

But glutamate is a pivotal neurotransmitter in the brain. It links the brain circuits involved in memory, learning and perception.

↑ Too much glutamate can kill neurons

↓ Too little glutamate can cause problems with memory, learning and perception

↓ Acetylcholine levels decline

All of these changes can happen at any age. And are a product of the food we eat, what we drink, lifestyle habits, the air we breathe and more.College student needs aniracetam

So Aniracetam can help for age-related cognitive decline, as well as a student looking to do better in school. By boosting acetylcholine and controlling glutamate in the brain.

Aniracetam benefits

Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors which are involved in how glutamate is used in your brain. More of the neurotransmitter glutamate is available. Which means better neural signaling across synapses. Your brain is working optimally despite stress, fatigue and anxiety.

There is anecdotal evidence that Aniracetam boosts communication between left and right brain hemispheres. You become more creative. And are prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

Aniracetam combined with choline boosts the production of the crucial neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Improving memory, recall and focus.

Aniracetam is fat-soluble and quickly enters your brain after you take it. Once in your brain, it boosts signal transmission, and protects neurons.

Aniracetam boosts acetylcholine so you should add a good choline source. Try Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline with Aniracetam. And give your brain the choline it needs.

How does Aniracetam feel?

Nootropics users report:

  • Aniracetam as a study aid. On its own, Aniracetam seems to increase attention span for many neurohackers. And when combined with caffeine, many report being able to work effortlessly for hours on end.
  • Aniracetam helps music sound fuller and richerIncreased auditory perception. If you love music, Aniracetam can take you deeper into your listening experience. Minute details like background guitars, and other auditory effects come alive. Every instrument becomes part of the sound stage.
  • Increased visual acuity. The visual effects of Aniracetam feel like your brain is processing a broader spectrum of what’s in your visual range. Nature and your surroundings look more vibrant and beautiful.
  • Sociability. Many users report being able to articulate thoughts, and improved speaking ability. Language and your vocabulary seem to flow effortlessly. Thoughts and ideas come with less effort.

You should be able to experience the effects of Aniracetam soon after you take it. It’s fat-soluble so it’s digested and enters your cells quickly.  A 750 mg dose of Aniracetam should last for several hours.  And unlike other stimulants, there is no “crash” once Aniracetam leaves your system.

Aniracetam Clinical Research

Researchers worked with 276 patients with cognitive disorders. They were given Aniracetam and tested at 3, 6 and 12 months.

Improved emotional states and better motor functionality was observed within 3 months. A boost in cognitive performance was observed within 6 months.

Findings concluded Aniracetam “is a promising option for patients with cognitive deficit” disorders. Improvements held throughout the 12-month study. And there was a favorable effect on emotional stability in patients with dementia.[xi]

Aniracetam as an Antidepressant

A study published in Psychopharmacology in 2001 showed Aniracetam helped stimulate the release of dopamine.  The study reported Aniracetam as effective against depression caused by age-related brain dysfunction.[xii]

Aniracetam Improves Learning & Memory

Researchers put rats and mice through six scenarios. From drug-induced memory loss to electric shock avoidance, while administering Aniracetam. The results of all tests conclusively showed Aniracetam improving cognitive function. It didn’t matter what they put these animals through. Learning and memory improved with the use of Aniracetam.[xiii]

Aniracetam Repairs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

We’re exposed to toxins everywhere we go. And in everything we do during our day. This toxin exposure wreaks havoc in our body, including our brain.

In this study, scientists showed one way to repair damage to synaptic transmission in the brain. They exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to ethanol and a saccharin-like sweetener. Pups born to these female rats would normally be extremely cognitively Aniracetam saves baby miceimpaired. Just like babies born to alcoholic mothers.

In this study, the pups born with fetal alcohol syndrome were treated with Aniracetam 18 and 27 days after birth. Aniracetam completely restored synaptic transmissions in their brains. And reversed any cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.[xiv]

Aniracetam Dosage

Recommended Aniracetam dosage is 1,500 mg per day. Taken in two 750 mg doses. One Aniracetam dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon.

A 750 mg dose of Aniracetam taken in the morning will last until noon. And a noon 750 mg dose of Aniracetam should last until about mid-afternoon.

Aniracetam is sold in tablet, capsule and powder form. Tablets and capsules are usually 750 mg each.

Since Aniracetam is a fat-soluble nootropic, you should take it with a meal containing healthy fats. Or with a tablespoon of unrefined coconut oil, or extra virgin olive oil. My preferred healthy fat is a tablespoon of the new organic, non-GMO Performance Lab® MCT Oil.

Aniracetam Side Effects

Aniracetam is non-toxic. So is considered well-tolerated and safe.

Side effects are rare but can include anxiety, fatigue, headaches, nervousness and nausea. Side effects are often a result of unusually high doses of the nootropic.

Headaches from using Aniracetam typically happen when you forget to combine it with a good choline supplement. Headaches are often a symptom of a choline deficit in your brain.

Where to Buy Aniracetam

Aniracetam is sold in tablet, capsule and powder form. Tablets and capsules are usually 750 mg each.

You can buy Aniracetam from Smart Nutrition – Aniracetam in capsules or tubs of powder.

In Europe and some other countries around the world, Aniracetam is a prescription drug. And sold under the brand names Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, and Sarpul.

Nootropics Expert Recommendation

Aniracetam 1,500 mg per day

Nootropics Expert Tested and ApprovedI recommend using Aniracetam as a nootropic supplement.

Your body does not make Aniracetam on its own. So to get its benefits you must take it as a supplement.

Aniracetam is especially helpful for those suffering from depression. Studies show it helps stop and reverse the symptoms associated with depression. This nootropic helps boost the activity of dopamine and serotonin in your brain.

Personally, I’ve found Aniracetam to be more effective (and safer) than any prescription anti-depressant I’ve ever tried.

Aniracetam is also particularly useful to students and executives who want to boost cognition, learning and memory. My experience using Aniracetam shows it helps boost study scores, workflow, learning and memory.

Aniracetam also helps improve verbal fluidity and sociability. Words seem to come easily, and vocabulary you didn’t know you had access to come into play.

Music sounds richer and fuller, and your listening experience enters a new level of music appreciation.

You should use Aniracetam with a good choline supplement like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline. It helps boost neural acetylcholine, so demands the presence of more choline in your brain.

You can safely boost daily intake of Aniracetam to 3,000 mg. if needed.

You can buy Aniracetam from Smart Nutrition – Aniracetam in capsules or tubs of powder.

And don’t forget that Aniracetam is a fat-soluble nootropic. So must be taken with a healthy fat for best results. My preferred healthy fat is a tablespoon of the new organic, non-GMO Performance Lab® MCT Oil.

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Malykh A.G., Sadaie M.R. “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.” Drugs. 2010 Feb 12;70(3):287-312. (source)

[ii] Gabryel B., Chalimoniuk M., Małecki A., Strosznajder J. “Effect of aniracetam on phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha in cytosolic and plasma membrane fractions of astrocytes subjected to simulated ischemia in vitro.” Pharmacological Reports 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):664-9. (source)

[iii] Isaacson J.S., Nicoll R. A. “Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America vol. 88, pp. 10936-10940, December 1991 (source)

[iv] Zhao X., Kuryatov A., Lindstrom J.M., Yeh J.Z., Narahashi T. “Nootropic drug modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons.” Molecular Pharmacology 2001 Apr;59(4):674-83. (source)

[v] Purves D., Augustine G.J., Fitzpatrick D., et al., editors. “Glutamate Receptors” Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. (source)

[vi] Roncan G. “Human Pharmacokinetics of Aniracetam” Springer – Drug Investigation June 1993, Volume 5, Supplement 1, pp 68-72 (source)

[vii] Gouliaev A.H., Senning A., “Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics” Brain Research Reviews 19 (1994) 180-222 (source)

[viii] Nakamura K. “Aniracetam: Its Novel Therapeutic Potential in Cerebral Dysfunctional Disorders Based on Recent Pharmacological Discoveries” CNS Drug Reviews 2002 Neva Press, Branford, Connecticut Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 70–89 (source)

[ix] Testa B., Mayer J.M. (1 August 2003). Hydrolysis in Drug and Prodrug Metabolism. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-3-906390-25-3.

[x] Nakamura K., Kurasawa M. “Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism.” European Journal of Pharmacology 2001 May 18;420(1):33-43. (source)

[xi] Koliaki C.C., Messini C., Tsolaki M. “Clinical Efficacy of Aniracetam, Either as Monotherapy or Combined with Cholinesterase Inhibitors, in Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Comparative Open Study” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 302–312, April 2012 (source)

[xii] Nakamura K, Tanaka Y. “Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2001 Nov;158(2):205-12. (source)

[xiii] Cumin R., Bandle E.F., Gamzu E., Haefely W.E. “Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 1982;78(2):104-11. (source)

[xiv] Wijayawardhane .1, Shonesy B.C., Vaglenova J., Vaithianathan T., Carpenter M., Breese C.R., Dityatev A., Suppiramaniam V. “Postnatal aniracetam treatment improves prenatal ethanol induced attenuation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.” Neurobiology of Disease 2007 Jun;26(3):696-706. (source)

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Join The Discussion - 449 comments

May 29, 2020

Hello, David. Great article! I have tried Aniracetam a little over two years ago. It wasn’t quite the experience I expected, but a lot has changed and I’m willing to give it another chance. I understand it’s effects on the AMPA receptors but wanted some more in depth info on how it impacts serotonin and dopamine. Does it increase these neurotransmitters, or does it release them like say a stimulant would? Does it act on any serotonin receptors or dopamine receptors like D2 or D3? According to my raw data, which I know can be hit or miss, I could benefit from increasing/activating DRD2 receptors. I also have a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) which means I have a poor response to SSRIs. Coincidentally, I have a poor response to methylfolate and folinic acid and of course cheap, synthetic folic acid. So I can’t tell if I need more or less serotonin, or just need to antagonize the bad receptors. I don’t mean to ramble, just want to see if you can share some knowledge in this area. I will be trying it regardless, from nootropics depot. I’ll make sure to take it with fat and I have CDP choline to take with as well. Do you think it stacks well with fish oil? I’d appreciate your advice!

    David Tomen
    June 1, 2020

    Johnny, my research shows that Aniracetam activates dopamine D2 & D3 receptors. Another animal study showed it affected nicotinic acetylcholine, 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors.

    Aniracetam is fat-soluble so needs something like unrefined coconut or MCT Oil to help it through cell membranes. Fish oil won’t do it. And I encourage you to switch from “fish oil” to something that is more effective for your brain. Please see my review for DHA and why you should use it instead here:

May 2, 2020

David, thank you so much for providing this amazing website!!

You recommend that the best place to purchase Aniracetam is from HR Supplements. I went to their website and they are currently out of stock. Also, the lowest dose they sell is 1,000 mg and I want to start at a lower dose. Would you please recommend an alternative website or brand for Aniracetam?

    David Tomen
    May 4, 2020

    Sandi, HR Supplements are the only company I trust these days to offer a quality, tested product. So you’ve got two options.

    1. Order their Aniracetam powder and make your own 500 mg capsules. You should be able to find a capsule filling machine on Amazon or one of the other supplement sites for $20 – 30. And a bag of 1,000 empty 00 capsules for around $15. Filling your own capsules is cheaper and you know exactly what’s going into that capsule. Including zero “other ingredients”.

    2nd option may be Nootropics Depot. Not sure of their testing capabilities lately. But you should be able to find out on their website with a little searching.

      August 4, 2020

      Would it not be possible to just buy the Hr supplements one at 1000mg and split the capules into two 500mg dosages? Nootropics depots lowest dosage is 500mg, but they are charging $60 for 180 capsules vs HR @ $19.99 for 120 1000MG caps.

        David Tomen
        August 6, 2020

        Jonathan, HR Supplements Aniracetam is 500 mg per capsule. Two capsules is 1,000 mg. I just checked the bottle beside my desk.

May 2, 2020

hello david i had a question
if im taking mind labs as the major/main part of my stack and i add aniracetam would i still require another choline producer or would the (ps) that helps produce choline in mind labs be enough?

    David Tomen
    May 4, 2020

    Jay, Aniracetam is a huge influence on how your brain uses acetylcholine. And you need a direct precursor like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline to produce this extra acetylcholine. The amount of Citicoline in Mind Lab Pro is not high enough when using this racetam. And PS won’t do it.

May 1, 2020

Hey i have two questions.

If im taking mind lab as a major/main part of my stack which has (ps) that helps with choline production. If i add Aniracetam would i still need to add another Choline supplement like CDP Choline?

Also I’m reading mixed reviews about the Aniracetam from NutriVitaShop, would you recommend them?

They’re cheap so I’m worried about the quality.

    David Tomen
    May 4, 2020

    Jay, to get the full benefit of Aniracetam you need to add an acetylcholine precursor. Something like 300 mg Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline with each Aniracetam dose. See the review above on why this is so important. Even the Citicoline in Mind Lab Pro is not enough to provide the acetylcholine that Aniracetam demands.

    You bring up a great point about supplement quality. That’s why I recommend HR Supplements near the end of the above review. Because they test their product and even provide a QR code on the bottle label so you can download the Certificate of Analysis for that bottle of Aniracetam.

April 30, 2020

Thanks for your content David.

Curious, what are your thoughts on taking aniracetam sublingually? Is there a benefit to it?


    David Tomen
    May 1, 2020

    Rob, I can’t imagine there would be any benefit. It’d be difficult to use it sublingually especially when you need to use it at the recommended dosage for full effect.

April 12, 2020

Hello david,
How are you ,
First of all thank you for this important information that can help people improve health and try to solve health problems, bless you!
My name is Tomer, 37, and I’d love to hear your opinion:
Following a steroid injection made to me in the editor due to headaches that I suffered in an extended period, which subsequently caused me severe problems with cognitive functioning: long-term memory and especially short-term memory, difficulty in speaking sharply and fluently, and the concentration is also particularly important.
In addition to this, I had chronic pain in the same area.
For the past two years I have been using FOHOW’s “Linzi” mushrooms that have helped me with the cognitive issue but after a long time decides to stop them because they make me aggravated by a headache and I’m sure they are “clean and natural”
I felt like I was “addicted” to it.

In any case, nowadays trying to find a replacement, the condition today is 30% cervical headache
And 70% the cognitive issue.
Currently takes:
Sam Island 200 mg * 1 (taking 3 years)
Ivbacrinol 100 mg * 1 (2 months)
Vitamin B-100 * 1 Complex (2 months)
Vitamin C 500mg * 1 (two months)
Omega 3 Crushed Sage Oil (2 months)
acetyl l-carnitine 500 mg / day (2 weeks)
 I take 3 capsules of MIND LEB PRO. (2 weeks)
Turmeric 1 * PHYTOSOME 500 mg (2 months)
The effect of supplements is positive but still the improvement is not enough for me especially on the cognitive issue of concentration and decision making.
Chronic fatigue also exists, but not in severe form.
I added that the supplements taken contribute to pain relief as well, which is why I’m more focused.
(The type of pain is dull to the scalp).

I would love to hear your opinion:
1. If there are other effective natural supplements that you recommend taking
For improved cognitive especially and possibly contributing to pain.
2. Which extension from the PIRACETAM family do you think is most suitable and assisted me in the situation.
And is it safe to take long-term (in recommended doses), where to buy it
Thanks in advance for your help.

    David Tomen
    April 23, 2020

    Tomer, it’s likely you’re getting pain relief from the Omega-3s and Turmeric because they are anti-inflammatory. Without know more the best I can offer is choosing 1 – 2 nootropics from each category on this page: That should assist cognition. For additional pain relief I suggest using the search function top right. Search for the keyword “anti-inflammatory” and see what else turns up.

March 22, 2020

How does one stack piracetam along with aniracetam to gain maximum benefits and being on the safer side?

As we know piracetam takes some time to show its affects but aniracetam has an immediate effect.

How would you advise to stack both for deriving a long-term benefit and also for short sprints of work at random days.

    David Tomen
    March 23, 2020

    Avinash, take a look at this section of my review first:

    Aniracetam seems to work much faster than Piracetam which makes it a better choice for “short sprints of work”. You may not get the benefit of Piracetam in time for it to make any difference in your work. You’ll need to experiment with this on your own and see what works best for you.

    If I was personally doing it I’d dose both at the same time and twice daily just because it’s easier to keep track of. Knowing that one racetam is fat-soluble while the other is not. And both require extra acetylcholine to experience the benefit of that nootropic.

eamonn sych
March 10, 2020

Hey David,
Could I take aniracetam, oxciracetam or noopept on Concerta(mph) would there be dangerous interactions?

    David Tomen
    March 11, 2020

    Eamonn, I use Aniracetam and sometimes Noopept with Ritalin with great success. As long as you follow dosage instructions you should be fine.

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