Aniracetam saves baby mice

Aniracetam

David Tomen
Author:
David Tomen
10 minute read
Aniracetam has been shown to relieve depression, boost learning & memory, improve verbal fluidity, increase music listening pleasure, and make you more social.

Aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic in the racetam-class of compounds. Aniracetam is up to 10-times more potent than the original racetam, Piracetam.

Aniracetam was patented by Swiss-based pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG in the 1978. It is similar in structure to Piracetam. Aniracetam, like all racetam nootropics, has a pyrrolidone nucleus at its core.

Aniracetam is sold as a prescription drug (Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, Sarpul) in Europe. And as a supplement in the United States.

A favorite racetam among the nootropics community. Neurohackers use Aniracetam to boost memory and learning. And to relieve anxiety, depression, stress, and improve sociability.[i]

Aniracetam helps:

  • Brain Optimization: Aniracetam significantly improves brain function after traumatic brain injury including stroke (ischemia).[ii] And enhances your brain’s ability to repair damaged cell membranes.
  • Neurotransmitters: Aniracetam reduces the desensitization of glutamate (AMPA) receptors in your brain. Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate. Resulting in better focus and concentration.[iii]
  • Brain Energy: Aniracetam improves memory and recall. It releases 200 – 300% more acetylcholine in the brain. Which can increase focus, and clarity of thought.[iv]

Overview

Aniracetam
Aniracetam

Aniracetam is in the racetam-family of nootropic compounds. It is a fat-soluble ampakine nootropic. AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic) refers to one of three glutamate receptors in your brain.[v]

The racetam-class of nootropics have a pyrrolidone nucleus at their core. And Aniracetam is a Cholinergic compound, meaning it affects acetylcholine levels in the brain.

Aniracetam is sold as a prescription drug in Europe and some of Asia under the names Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, and Sarpul. It is sold as an over-the-counter, unrestricted compound in the United States. But not as a dietary supplement.

One of the original synthetic nootropic compounds, it is known as a cognitive enhancer. And is known for its anxiolytic, or anti-anxiety effects.

Aniracetam is considered to be up to 10-times more potent than Piracetam. As an ampakine nootropic, it helps increase attention span, alertness and boosts memory.

Ampakines tend to have a stimulant effect. But do not produce the same stimulant side effects as Ritalin or coffee from prolonged use.

Reach your potential with Aniracetam

Aniracetam vs. Piracetam: What’s the Difference?

Swiss-based pharmaceutical company F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG developed Aniracetam in the late 1970’s as a derivative of Piracetam.

Aniracetam is fat-soluble while Piracetam is water-soluble. Fat-soluble molecules cross the blood-brain barrier more easily than water-soluble molecules.

Aniracetam works faster in the brain after taking it than Piracetam because of its superior bioavailability to the brain. But its effects don’t last as long as Piracetam.

Aniracetam vs. Piracetam - counter-intuitiveThe potency of Aniracetam seems almost counter-intuitive. Because most of an Aniracetam dose is lost in the liver during digestion. Only 0.2% or the original dose is available to the brain.[vi] Piracetam is nearly 100% bioavailable.[vii]

Both Aniracetam and Piracetam are cognitive enhancers. And both have neuroprotective qualities. Both racetams are able to improve learning and memory. And both are able to repair brain damage.

Aniracetam has additional benefits not shared with Piracetam. Aniracetam can reduce anxiety, depression and fear. And increase sociability.[viii] This may indicate its effects on dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain.

How does Aniracetam Work in the Brain?

Aniracetam boosts brain health and function in several ways. But two in particular stand out.

  1. Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors in the brain. The main metabolite of Aniracetam (70-80%) is N-anisoyl-GABA and is responsible for many of its effects.

2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisilic acid are additional metabolites of the drug (20-30%), both of which are also active.[ix]

The main function of these metabolites is on the glutamate system in the brain. It reduces the desensitization of glutamate receptors. This causes the neurotransmitter glutamate to become more available in the brain.

More glutamate means better cognition and memory. And neural protection and repair due to brain injury.

  1. Aniracetam also seems to affect dopamine and serotonin receptors in the brain. Leading to improved mood and sociability.

One study published in the European Journal of Pharmacology demonstrated the anti-anxiety effects of Aniracetam. Researchers tracked the brain pathways in mice showing Aniracetam’s mechanism of action.[x] Illustrating the effect on dopamine and serotonin.

Aniracetam boosts dopamine and serotonin

How things go bad

Glutamate is an excitatory relative of GABA. While GABA has a calming effect, glutamate stimulates. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

But glutamate is actually toxic to neurons. And too much of it in your brain can kill brain cells. Lou Gehrig’s Disease for example, is caused by excess glutamate.

But glutamate is a pivotal neurotransmitter in the brain. It links the brain circuits involved in memory, learning and perception.

↑ Too much glutamate can kill neurons

↓ Too little glutamate can cause problems with memory, learning and perception

↓ Acetylcholine levels decline

All of these changes can happen at any age. And are a product of the food we eat, what we drink, lifestyle habits, the air we breathe and more.College student needs aniracetam

So Aniracetam can help for age-related cognitive decline, as well as a student looking to do better in school. By boosting acetylcholine and controlling glutamate in the brain.

Aniracetam benefits

Aniracetam modulates AMPA receptors which are involved in how glutamate is used in your brain. More of the neurotransmitter glutamate is available. Which means better neural signaling across synapses. Your brain is working optimally despite stress, fatigue and anxiety.

There is anecdotal evidence that Aniracetam boosts communication between left and right brain hemispheres. You become more creative. And are prone to making innovative and resourceful decisions.

Aniracetam combined with choline boosts the production of the crucial neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Improving memory, recall and focus.

Aniracetam is fat-soluble and quickly enters your brain after you take it. Once in your brain, it boosts signal transmission, and protects neurons.

Aniracetam boosts acetylcholine so you should add a good choline source. Try Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline with Aniracetam. And give your brain the choline it needs.

How does Aniracetam feel?

Nootropics users report:

  • Aniracetam as a study aid. On its own, Aniracetam seems to increase attention span for many neurohackers. And when combined with caffeine, many report being able to work effortlessly for hours on end.
  • Aniracetam helps music sound fuller and richerIncreased auditory perception. If you love music, Aniracetam can take you deeper into your listening experience. Minute details like background guitars, and other auditory effects come alive. Every instrument becomes part of the sound stage.
  • Increased visual acuity. The visual effects of Aniracetam feel like your brain is processing a broader spectrum of what’s in your visual range. Nature and your surroundings look more vibrant and beautiful.
  • Sociability. Many users report being able to articulate thoughts, and improved speaking ability. Language and your vocabulary seem to flow effortlessly. Thoughts and ideas come with less effort.

You should be able to experience the effects of Aniracetam soon after you take it. It’s fat-soluble so it’s digested and enters your cells quickly.  A 750 mg dose of Aniracetam should last for several hours.  And unlike other stimulants, there is no “crash” once Aniracetam leaves your system.

Aniracetam Clinical Research

Researchers worked with 276 patients with cognitive disorders. They were given Aniracetam and tested at 3, 6 and 12 months.

Improved emotional states and better motor functionality was observed within 3 months. A boost in cognitive performance was observed within 6 months.

Findings concluded Aniracetam “is a promising option for patients with cognitive deficit” disorders. Improvements held throughout the 12-month study. And there was a favorable effect on emotional stability in patients with dementia.[xi]

Aniracetam as an Antidepressant

A study published in Psychopharmacology in 2001 showed Aniracetam helped stimulate the release of dopamine.  The study reported Aniracetam as effective against depression caused by age-related brain dysfunction.[xii]

Aniracetam Improves Learning & Memory

Researchers put rats and mice through six scenarios. From drug-induced memory loss to electric shock avoidance, while administering Aniracetam. The results of all tests conclusively showed Aniracetam improving cognitive function. It didn’t matter what they put these animals through. Learning and memory improved with the use of Aniracetam.[xiii]

Aniracetam Repairs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

We’re exposed to toxins everywhere we go. And in everything we do during our day. This toxin exposure wreaks havoc in our body, including our brain.

In this study, scientists showed one way to repair damage to synaptic transmission in the brain. They exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to ethanol and a saccharin-like sweetener. Pups born to these female rats would normally be extremely cognitively Aniracetam saves baby miceimpaired. Just like babies born to alcoholic mothers.

In this study, the pups born with fetal alcohol syndrome were treated with Aniracetam 18 and 27 days after birth. Aniracetam completely restored synaptic transmissions in their brains. And reversed any cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.[xiv]

Aniracetam Dosage

Recommended Aniracetam dosage is 1,500 mg per day. Taken in two 750 mg doses. One Aniracetam dose in the morning, and one in the early afternoon.

A 750 mg dose of Aniracetam taken in the morning will last until noon. And a noon 750 mg dose of Aniracetam should last until about mid-afternoon.

Aniracetam is sold in tablet, capsule and powder form. Tablets and capsules are usually 750 mg each.

Since Aniracetam is a fat-soluble nootropic, you should take it with a meal containing healthy fats. Or with a tablespoon of unrefined coconut oil, or extra virgin olive oil. My preferred healthy fat is a tablespoon of the new organic, non-GMO Performance Lab® MCT Oil.

Aniracetam Side Effects

Aniracetam is non-toxic. So is considered well-tolerated and safe.

Side effects are rare but can include anxiety, fatigue, headaches, nervousness and nausea. Side effects are often a result of unusually high doses of the nootropic.

Headaches from using Aniracetam typically happen when you forget to combine it with a good choline supplement. Headaches are often a symptom of a choline deficit in your brain.

Where to Buy Aniracetam

Aniracetam is sold in tablet, capsule and powder form. Tablets and capsules are usually 750 mg each.

You can buy Aniracetam from Smart Nutrition – Aniracetam in capsules or tubs of powder.

In Europe and some other countries around the world, Aniracetam is a prescription drug. And sold under the brand names Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan, and Sarpul.

Nootropics Expert Recommendation

Aniracetam 1,500 mg per day

Nootropics Expert Tested and ApprovedI recommend using Aniracetam as a nootropic supplement.

Your body does not make Aniracetam on its own. So to get its benefits you must take it as a supplement.

Aniracetam is especially helpful for those suffering from depression. Studies show it helps stop and reverse the symptoms associated with depression. This nootropic helps boost the activity of dopamine and serotonin in your brain.

Personally, I’ve found Aniracetam to be more effective (and safer) than any prescription anti-depressant I’ve ever tried.

Aniracetam is also particularly useful to students and executives who want to boost cognition, learning and memory. My experience using Aniracetam shows it helps boost study scores, workflow, learning and memory.

Aniracetam also helps improve verbal fluidity and sociability. Words seem to come easily, and vocabulary you didn’t know you had access to come into play.

Music sounds richer and fuller, and your listening experience enters a new level of music appreciation.

You should use Aniracetam with a good choline supplement like Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline. It helps boost neural acetylcholine, so demands the presence of more choline in your brain.

You can safely boost daily intake of Aniracetam to 3,000 mg. if needed.

You can buy Aniracetam from Smart Nutrition – Aniracetam in capsules or tubs of powder.

And don’t forget that Aniracetam is a fat-soluble nootropic. So must be taken with a healthy fat for best results. My preferred healthy fat is a tablespoon of the new organic, non-GMO Performance Lab® MCT Oil.

As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This post may also contain other affiliate links and I will be compensated if you make a purchase after clicking on my links.

[i] Malykh A.G., Sadaie M.R. “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.” Drugs. 2010 Feb 12;70(3):287-312. (source)

[ii] Gabryel B., Chalimoniuk M., Małecki A., Strosznajder J. “Effect of aniracetam on phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha in cytosolic and plasma membrane fractions of astrocytes subjected to simulated ischemia in vitro.” Pharmacological Reports 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):664-9. (source)

[iii] Isaacson J.S., Nicoll R. A. “Aniracetam reduces glutamate receptor desensitization and slows the decay of fast excitatory synaptic currents in the hippocampus” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America vol. 88, pp. 10936-10940, December 1991 (source)

[iv] Zhao X., Kuryatov A., Lindstrom J.M., Yeh J.Z., Narahashi T. “Nootropic drug modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cortical neurons.” Molecular Pharmacology 2001 Apr;59(4):674-83. (source)

[v] Purves D., Augustine G.J., Fitzpatrick D., et al., editors. “Glutamate Receptors” Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001. (source)

[vi] Roncan G. “Human Pharmacokinetics of Aniracetam” Springer – Drug Investigation June 1993, Volume 5, Supplement 1, pp 68-72 (source)

[vii] Gouliaev A.H., Senning A., “Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics” Brain Research Reviews 19 (1994) 180-222 (source)

[viii] Nakamura K. “Aniracetam: Its Novel Therapeutic Potential in Cerebral Dysfunctional Disorders Based on Recent Pharmacological Discoveries” CNS Drug Reviews 2002 Neva Press, Branford, Connecticut Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 70–89 (source)

[ix] Testa B., Mayer J.M. (1 August 2003). Hydrolysis in Drug and Prodrug Metabolism. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 109–. ISBN 978-3-906390-25-3.

[x] Nakamura K., Kurasawa M. “Anxiolytic effects of aniracetam in three different mouse models of anxiety and the underlying mechanism.” European Journal of Pharmacology 2001 May 18;420(1):33-43. (source)

[xi] Koliaki C.C., Messini C., Tsolaki M. “Clinical Efficacy of Aniracetam, Either as Monotherapy or Combined with Cholinesterase Inhibitors, in Patients with Cognitive Impairment: A Comparative Open Study” CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Volume 18, Issue 4, pages 302–312, April 2012 (source)

[xii] Nakamura K, Tanaka Y. “Antidepressant-like effects of aniracetam in aged rats and its mode of action.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2001 Nov;158(2):205-12. (source)

[xiii] Cumin R., Bandle E.F., Gamzu E., Haefely W.E. “Effects of the novel compound aniracetam (Ro 13-5057) upon impaired learning and memory in rodents.” Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 1982;78(2):104-11. (source)

[xiv] Wijayawardhane .1, Shonesy B.C., Vaglenova J., Vaithianathan T., Carpenter M., Breese C.R., Dityatev A., Suppiramaniam V. “Postnatal aniracetam treatment improves prenatal ethanol induced attenuation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.” Neurobiology of Disease 2007 Jun;26(3):696-706. (source)

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Join The Discussion - 431 comments

dave
September 23, 2019

5-htp stacks real nice with aniracetam. Tried it, wow!
I feel so smooth and relaxed like an African American.
The effect is much better than when either taken alone.

Mick
August 22, 2019

Thanks David great advice

Mick
August 21, 2019

Hi David
Aniracetam works well for me, but the effect lasts about one hour after taking it.
I take it with 250mg of CDP Choline and table spoon of coconut oil. I’ve tried different dosages of Aniracetam from 750mg to 1500mg in single dosage, but it also lasts about an hour. After an hour it feels like I haven’t taken anything.
Can you please recommend something that I can do, so the effect would last like it should be?

Thank You

    David Tomen
    August 21, 2019

    Mick, the half-life of Aniracetam is very short. Studies show it absorbed very quickly and completely into cells but only lasts maximum about 2 hours. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03258428

    I find that it helps using it as needed. For example, my normal dosage is 750 mg in the morning and again at noon. But if I’m doing a podcast where I need to think quickly, I’ll take another dose right before the podcast. Works great.

      Jonathan
      August 6, 2020

      Hi David,

      I’m curious, if Aniracetam benefits those with depression and anxiety as well as repairing brain damage, but only has a short half life of 2 hrs, do it’s effects mentioned above last longer than the 2hra or have a cumulative effect? Or does it only do these along with focus and memory enhancement for the approx 2 hr window.

      I’m also a little confused by the statement when it says aniracetam increases acetyl choline by 200-300% in the brain, so you have to take it with a good choline source. If it increases quantities in the brain, why would you need to take more on top of this? Is it because it increases production but requires even more for fuel?

      Thanks in advance for providing clarity.

        David Tomen
        August 6, 2020

        Jonathan, maybe I didn’t state it clearly. It’s not possible to synthesize acetylcholine with anything other than a choline molecule and its cofactors.

        Aniracetam seems to facilitate cholinergic transmission (https://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00002512-199404030-00007). Not sure anyone knows exactly how it does this but I do know that if you neglect to use Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline with Aniracetam you’ll get a racetam-headache. And like any headache, it’s not pleasant.

        It doesn’t have a cumulative effect but works for a couple of hours each time you use it. For example, I take a 750 mg dose of Aniracetam right before I get on a Podcast. When the host asks me questions the answers are always there and the conversation just flows.

        I think, and this is pure speculation on my part, that when you provide a tool to the brain to work better it has an easier time healing itself.

arnold
August 16, 2019

David can you do a video or a post about the cycling of different nootropics so that people dont create tolerances? Thank you

    David Tomen
    August 16, 2019

    Arnold, I’m not a big fan of cycling to reduce tolerance with the exception of 1 or 2 nootropics. For example, Huperzine-A must be cycled because of a long half-life. But the majority of nootropics do not need to be cycled if you follow recommended dosages.

    I may be completely wrong, but think some prefer to cycle because they are looking for feelings of euphoria. And that’s completely opposite to my message that nootropics should be used to heal and optimize your brain. I realize some in this community disagree with me.

    Aniracetam for example has a specific mechanism of action. As far as I can tell and from my personal experience it continues to exhibit the same mechanism of action day after day and dose after dose. I can’t see any reason to cycle it. Because when I don’t use it I don’t get the benefit of using this nootropic.

    However, your idea about tolerance and its causes is a sound one in certain instances and especially with some prescription meds. And something I’ll consider as a possible future post. Thank you.

Rob L
August 14, 2019

Quote: “Which boosts neural signaling by increasing the effectiveness of glutamate.”

How can this attribute then create “anxiolytic” affect?
higher Glutamate in most people with anxiety get more anxiety.
Glutamate when not converted into GABA is an excitatory neurotransmitter.

Just trying to understand how this is?

    David Tomen
    August 16, 2019

    Rob, Aniracetam doesn’t boost glutamate. It increases its effectiveness which has a positive effect on neural signaling and things like memory.

    I think the ‘anxiolytic’ effect of Aniracetam comes from its ability to increase dopamine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11702095

Robert L
August 7, 2019

Hi,
When I read about something that gives energy or higher brain function etc – I hear potential anxiety.

I have a history of trial and only Error.

I am already high wired. Over thinking. Negative thoughts.
Now I’m in I’d say major depressive state.

I have not tried this yet. But is it good doe Major Depression? I cry almost everyday… lost emotional/spiritual connections. Dislike my heart.

Now I also read that if Acetylcholine is high – Serotonin goes down.

Just looking for people who been low like I am and tried this.

Oh – and with MindLab Pro is the Cognizin high enough to add in Anaracetam?

    David Tomen
    August 8, 2019

    Robert, please read this on depression: https://nootropicsexpert.com/best-nootropics-for-depression/. Because there is no simple answer to dealing with it and it will take some work getting to the bottom of what’s causing yours.

    High dopamine suppresses serotonin and vice versa. But all major neurotransmitters need to be in balance including acetylcholine.

    I do not think the Cognizin in Mind Lab Pro is high enough to support Aniracetam use. I find I need to use at least 600 mg Alpha GPC every time I dose Aniracetam or I get a racetam-headache. Even when using Mind Lab Pro.

kong
July 21, 2019

Hi david,

I will be getting racetams soon and they are on the way soon in weeks time. I am getting Aniracetam, oxiracetam, Pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam and noopept each 30 capsules and alpha gpc 180 capsules for trial and error. I need some serious advise which one should i start first. I have research online and found some stacks and what would you think of it. My goal is fix my minor depression and social anxiety, more on learning faster, focus and better mood and better mood.

To Try first
Aniracetam + alpha GPC
aniracetam + oxiracetam + alpha GPC
aniracetam + noopept + alpha GPC ( based on your studies )

2ndly
oxiracetam + alpha gpc
( can it mix with other racetams? )

3rdly
pramiracetam + aniracetam + alpha gpc
( can it mix with other racetams? )

4th
phenylpiracetam + any above + alpha gpc

5th
Noopept + alpha gpc

Any triple stack that you recommend that is safe?
I look forward to your kind advise. thanks

    David Tomen
    July 22, 2019

    Kong, I think your first option of the best. Especially, this one: aniracetam + noopept + alpha GPC. I’d just be careful about stacking more than two racetams. Look up their mechanism of action under each review and compare how they work in your brain. Anything that has the same type of action should not be used together.

Jeroen
July 8, 2019

Hello,

Love your blog and the information your spreading! Thank you for that! I am taking aniracetam now in de morning 500 mg and noopept 10mg in the afternoon. On different sites i saw that you should cycle aniracetam and noopept and the racetams on and off. On other sites i saw that you should take it without cycling. I’m a bit confused now. Do you know if cycling is necesary?

Greetings,
Jeroen van Vlodrop

    David Tomen
    July 8, 2019

    Jeroen, it’s whatever works for you. I find personally that when I use both at recommended dosages I don’t need to cycle. You see mixed messages because of different experiences. We’re all wired differently.

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